The Cultural History of Staple Repair
|關鍵字:||鋦釘;陶瓷修補;馬蝗絆茶碗;metal staples;ceramic repair;Bakohan tea bowls||公開日期:||三月-2017||期刊:||美術史研究集刊||頁數:||001-90||摘要:||以金屬鋦釘補修、強固破裂陶瓷是世界上許多國家歷史上曾經採行的做法，其工法一般是沿著待修陶瓷破裂痕的兩側鑽孔，再植入兩端屈曲形似釘書針的「ㄇ形」金屬釘。本文在梳理東亞、南亞、中東以及歐洲歷史上陶瓷鋦補例的基礎之上，認為十八世紀歐洲於高溫施釉瓷上的鋦補工藝有可能是受到中國的影響，鋦瓷工匠可說是因應其時歐洲硬瓷的出現而興起的新行業。中國區域當然也是以破裂陶瓷為鋦補的主要對象，但至遲在明代中晚期的文人畫中，已經採取了以鋦補陶瓷圖像來營造高古氛圍的創作策略，而日本區域茶道圈在十六世紀興起的陶瓷鋦釘賞玩風情，極有可能也是受到明代文人對於鋦瓷之獨特詮釋的啟發。中日兩國的不同之處是，中國區域陶瓷上的鋦釘不過是特定時段文人圈中用以象徵古物的圖像記號，日本區域則將之發展成茶道史上具有拙趣的賞鑑對象，成為今日日本文化史著述所津津樂道之體現桃山時代以來具有日本國族鑑賞美學的指標例證之一。尤其重要的是，上述中日兩地賦予陶瓷鋦釘的象徵意涵和賞鑑態勢，是未見於其他地區的事例，是世界鋦瓷史上一個特殊的文化現象。
Historically, the method of using metal staples to repair or strengthen ceramics has been adopted in many countries worldwide. In general, the method involves drilling holes along either side of a crack on a ceramic ware, and then inserting u-shaped metal staples to repair the ware. This study examines the examples of ceramics with staple repairs in East Asian, South Asian, Middle East, and European histories. According to the findings, this study argues that the craft of staple repair for high-temperature glazed porcelain in 18th-century Europe could have been influenced by China, and staple repair craftsman could be regarded as a new profession emerging along with European hard porcelain. In the region of China, staple repair was mainly applied to broken ceramics. However, the images of stapled ceramics were already used as an artistic strategy to create an atmosphere of high antiquity in literati paintings as early as the mid- and late Ming dynasty. The appreciation of metal staples on ceramics that rose in the circle of tea ceremony in 16th-century Japan could have also been inspired by the unique interpretation of stapled ceramics among Ming literati. The cultural connotations of staple repair differ between China and Japan. In China, metal staples on ceramics were only used as an image or symbol of antiquity among literati of a specific period. By contrast, such staples developed into a quaint object for appreciation in the history of the Japanese tea ceremony. In addition, this cultural practice has been enthusiastically discussed by contemporary studies of Japanese cultural history as an indicator and example of the Japanese aesthetics of appreciation since the Momoyama period. Particularly, the practice of endowing stapled ceramics with symbolic meanings and appreciating them is only found in China and Japan, which is a special cultural phenomenon in the world history of stapled ceramics.
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