The Uncertain Identity of Chinese Music: Symphonization and Adaptation from Western Music in the Development of Taipei Chinese Orchestra
|Keywords:||國樂交響化;西樂中奏;國樂主體性;台北市立國樂團;Guo Yue Jiao Xiang Hua;Xi Yue Zhong Zou;Chinese music’s identity;Taipei Chinese Orchestra||Issue Date:||2015||Abstract:||
In pursuing musical modernization, Chinese musicians in the early 20th Century began their projects by using Chinese instruments to replicate the European orchestras, thereby forming a contemporary Chinese orchestra. Subsequently, music of the contemporary Chinese orchestra was promoted as “Gouyue,” meaning “national music” in Chinese. After the Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War, the Chinese Orchestra was disseminated throughout the world as a result of large-scale emigrations. Currently among Asian countries, there are Chinese orchestras in China, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan; yet, occasionally they are named differently. In China, the genre was renamed to “Minyue,” meaning “ethnic music.” In Singapore the orchestra is referred to as “Huayue” (Chinese music); while in Hong Kong the term “Gongyue” that was used before the 1970s, was later replaced by “Zhongyue” (also meaning “Chinese music”). The name “Gouyue” is now only preserved in Taiwan. At the end of 1970’s, professional Chinese orchestras were established in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and mainland China. At the same time, a significant number of works requiring well-organized Chinese orchestras were composed, which triggered a debate on Chinese Music Symphonization (Guo Yue Jiao Xiang Hua) among the musicians and scholars from these same three places. In the discussions, musicians and scholars from Taiwan, Hong Kong, and mainland China tried to clarify the future of contemporary Chinese orchestra. Participants form mainland China wanted to establish a “Chinese orchestra which contain[ed] Chinese musical features”; Hong Kong sought for a “Chinese model of Symphonization” that was different from Western musical standards; while beginning in the 2000’s, Taiwanese scholars have argued that symphonized Chinese orchestras were disadvantageous towards the establishment of a Gouyue identity. However, “Gou Yue’s identity” has not been well-discussed among the scholars who were making this argument. Hence, this article intends to clarify this question by arguing that the establishment of musical identity is related to the choice of traditional musical elements. Furthermore, Xi Yue Zhong Zou (Western work performed by Chinese orchestra) pieces produced by the Taipei Chinese Orchestra will be taken as examples to demonstrate that “Gou Yue’s identity” experienced a dilemma which is very much akin to the one that the Taiwanese national identity has been experiencing in recent years.
|Appears in Collections:||音樂學研究所|
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