The Deliberative Examination of Views in the ?gama-s?tras
|Keywords:||阿含經典;見解;邪見;正見;解脫;?gama-s?tras;views;mithy?-d???i(wrong view);samyag-d???i(right view);liberation||Issue Date:||2015||Abstract:||
本論文研究阿含經典對見解所做的思辨式考察。強調其思辨之面向，在於阿含經典對於見解的考察經過深思熟慮，並非只是要求眾生相信而已。阿含經典初步把見解分成邪見和正見，意即錯謬的見解和正確的見解。邪見和正見都包括很多項目，但本論文只挑選較為重要的項目來論說，而且本文將會花較多的篇幅來討論正見。 本論文認為無論是邪見或正見，初步上都是表現為論斷或命題，具有具體的內容，而且兩者都會引導出後續相關的修行道路。雖然邪見和正見初步上都是表現為論斷或命題，不過值得注意的是，到了較為進階的階段，正見的重點即會落在觀察和思考上面，其論斷或命題的涵義就較為淡薄。以此，本論文主張正見的涵義包括很多面向，因此應避免用單一的涵義來理解正見。 邪見中有三大類的邪見，分別是關聯於世間的邪見、邊見、身見，各自有其過失。正見中較為切要的項目有二，即對四聖諦的了解和對緣起緣滅機制的了解，因為這兩大項目涉及如何脫離困苦和世界根本的運作方式。根據阿含經典，見解可以導向後續的修行道路，而正見大致即可以導向正確的修行道路。若一起運作正見背後之觀察與思考和正見所帶出的修行項目，即可以培養出正確的智慧。這樣子的智慧，可以幫助達到解脫。
This thesis aims to demonstrate the deliberative examination of views in the Āgama-sūtras. The examination of views is deliberative because the Āgama-sūtras do not ask sentient beings to blindly believe what the Āgama-sūtras propose; instead, the Āgama-sūtras have a solid background within. In the Āgama-sūtras, views are mostly divided into mithyā-dṛṣṭi and samyag-dṛṣṭi, respectively wrong views and right views. I will further examine such a distinction as follows. In this research, I argue that the forms of mithyā-dṛṣṭi and samyag-dṛṣṭi are assertions or propositions on the one hand, and both mithyā-dṛṣṭi and samyag-dṛṣṭi have great influence on further practice on the other. At an initial stage, both mithyā-dṛṣṭi and samyag-dṛṣṭi can be expressed as assertions or propositions with specific contents. In a higher level, however, it should be noted that the main concern of samyag-dṛṣṭi will put more emphasis on investigation and thinking, and the aspect of assertions or propositions is not much involved as the former. From this standpoint, I further conclude that the idea of samyag-dṛṣṭi should have many aspects; in other words, the “meaning” of samyag-dṛṣṭi is diverse, instead of being assigned with a single viewpoint. There are many items concerning mithyā-dṛṣṭi and samyag-dṛṣṭi, yet this thesis will discuss within the scope of prominent ones, focusing more on samyag-dṛṣṭi. The items of mithyā-dṛṣṭi can be put into three main categories—wrong views about the world, views from holding one extreme position, and views about the self—each of which has its own faults. As for samyag-dṛṣṭi, the understanding of four noble truths and the understanding of the mechanism of conditioned co-arising and cessation are prominent in this discussion because they are highly related to how one gets rid of suffering and how the world works. According to the Āgama-sūtras, views can guide us into the way of further practice, and samyag-dṛṣṭi can lead to the right way of it. By performing investigation and thinking behind samyag-dṛṣṭi and the practice samyag-dṛṣṭi leads to, one can cultivate right wisdom, which will help one to achieve liberation.
|Appears in Collections:||哲學系|
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