Life and Philosophy of Life: Definition and Clarification
|Keywords:||生命;生命哲學;死亡;生死學;Life;Philosophy of life;Death;Life-death studies||Issue Date:||Mar-2008||Start page/Pages:||155-190||Source:||國立臺灣大學哲學論評||Abstract:||
本文的焦點主要放在生命做為一個學術概念，以及生命哲學做為一套學問或一門學科，提出界說和釐清，勾勒外貌，並且針對相關的若干概念或論題，做成初步的思辨。 在論述的行文，經由如下八節，成為以界說、釐清、論題、思辨、和論理交織而成的架構。第一節，「緒論」，開門見山，帶出研究主題，並且逐一交代論文的構想與輪廓。第二節，「何謂生命」，將學界最常見的標定在有機體的生命界說，在形式上，分成列舉式的界說和簡要的界說，逐一整理其要點，展開批判的回顧，並且擬定可推演出更好的生命界說的替代構想，以非固著的和開通的做法，將生命界說為「使生命之顯現得以成為如此的生命歷程之一貫的根本、機制、或道理」。這樣的生命界說，可避免通常的生命界說以有機體為著眼的褊狹、固著、和封閉之缺失，而且更適合據以展開生命哲學、宗教哲學、或佛教哲學的探究。第三節，「釐清生命和相關概念」，包括人生、生物、生命體、生命現象、生存、生活、死亡，避免將生命和這些相關概念攪混在一起。第四節，「何謂哲學」，以哲學做為專業領域所從事的工作，扼要說明哲學意指什麼。第五節，「何謂生命哲學」，在論陳生命和哲學這二個概念之後，即可順理成章地界說生命哲學，大致意指「以生命為關切的重心，展開哲學的探問與思辨，從而形成的整套學問的鑽研」。第六節，「生命和哲學的關係」，分別從生命之於哲學，以及哲學之於生命，討論生命和哲學之間的關係。第七節，「釐清生命哲學和相關學科」，在生命哲學和生物學、人生哲學、生命研究、生死學、或死亡學等相關學科之間，做出適度的釐清，使生命哲學意何所指，從對照的視角，可更加鮮明予以理解。第八節，「結論與展望」，總結本文的要點，並且展望後續相關的探討。 本文的目標，設定為如下二大所欲達成的事項。其一，以哲學的書寫，提供有關生命概念與生命哲學較為嚴謹與完整的概觀。其二，呈現的生命哲學，不至於過分褊狹，而是不僅可助成和宗教哲學、佛教哲學的接軌，而且往宗教式的生命實踐開放，有助於理解學說與實修在生命課題可能的密切關聯。
The focus of this paper is on life as an academic concept and philosophy of life as a body of knowledge or a discipline, defining, clarifying, and examining relevant concepts or questions. The structure of this paper is divided into eight sections in terms of definition, clarification, questioning, and examination. The first section, "Introduction," points out the theme and gives a general outline of the theme. The second section, "What Is Life?", brings forward in the forms of list and succinct definition the most common definitions of life as organism in academic cycle. In order to develop a better definition of life, this paper makes a critical review of the above and, in a non-fixated and open manner, defines life as "a coherent base, mechanism, or principle which manifests life as such a process of life." Such a definition not only avoids the deficiencies of narrowness, fixation, and closure but also makes it a suitable foundation for investigating philosophy of life, philosophy of religion, or Buddhist philosophy. The third section, "Clarifying Life and Related Concepts," makes a distinction among human life, living creature, living entity, phenomena of life, livelihood, living, and death in order not to confuse life with these related concepts. The fourth section, "What is Philosophy?", concisely indicates what philosophy means from the light of philosophy as a professional field. The fifth section, "What is Philosophy of Life?", follows to define philosophy of life after discussing the concepts of life and philosophy. Philosophy of life is "the study of life with life as its main concern and philosophical inquiry and reasoning as the method." The sixth section, "The Relation of Life to Philosophy," discusses the relation between life and philosophy in terms of life to philosophy and philosophy to life respectively. The seventh section, "Clarifying Philosophy of Life and Related Disciplines," makes a proper clarification among philosophy of life, biology, philosophy of human life, life studies, life-and-death studies, and thanatology. By means of contrast, this section makes the definition of philosophy of life clearer and more intelligible. The eighth section, "Conclusions and Prospects," summarizes the key points of this paper and anticipates future discussions. The main objective of this paper includes at least the following two points. One is to offer a more rigorous and complete outline for the concept of life and philosophy of life by way of philosophical writing. The other is to present philosophy of life as less narrow than conducive to be connected with philosophy of religion and Buddhist philosophy, open to the religious way of life practice, and contributing to understanding the close relationship between theory and practice on the topic of life.
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