Interpretative Approach to Navigating Concepts Concerning the Doctrine of Nondual Middle Way--Maneuver into Buddhist Approach to Unfolding Thorough Reality of the Life World
|關鍵字:||不二;中道;實相;實在;生命哲學;Non-duality;Middle way;Thorough reality;Reality;Philosophy of life||公開日期:||十月-2006||期刊:||國立臺灣大學哲學論評||頁數:||115-165||摘要:||本文試圖以解開生命世界的全面實相在思惟的導引為詮釋線索，闡明佛法「不二中道」學說用以建構的關鍵概念，包括不二、中道、非我 、無常、生滅、緣起、空性，而這些深具導航作用的概念，其意涵的詮釋進路一經打通，在排除觀念迷航的基礎上，不僅可藉以理解佛法以「 不二中道」為標幟所要彰顯學說的基本思惟方針與實踐旨趣，而且在思惟明燈的逐一點燃下，還可藉以續航在生命世界的實相大海。 深受相對概念的影響，二分式的或二極化的思惟形態或觀點，在日常語言、哲學思辨、宗教論說，不僅無孔不入，甚至早已鑲嵌成思惟或 觀點的基本結構，很容易被視為理所當然，而難以覺察，且難以甩脫。以檢查且揚棄二分式的思惟形態而起家的不二中道，其基本概念與基本 議題通通不落俗套，不論在哲學或宗教，都提出開創式的做法，一方面，提供獨特的眼光，從基本的結構，檢視哲學或宗教的嵌入招式，另一 方面，也開闢出哲學或宗教可以走的或許更加深刻、通暢、或長遠的道路。 本文最主要的任務，在於解明「為什麼將生命世界看成不二中道」，「如何看成不二中道」，以及「看成怎樣的不二中道」。基於以達成 這一系列的任務為重，研究方法的工作要項即落在概念的釐清，議題的解析，意涵的闡明，以及理路的鋪陳。 在論述架構的安排，由強調不二中道和全面實相為宗教哲學或生命哲學極富創意的基本概念入手，先做關鍵概念的界說和釐清，尤其區別 於二元主義、一元主義、和多元主義，凸顯不二中道的非實體觀念以及從根本揚棄二分式的思惟形態。接下來，一方面，避免廉價的嫁接或庸 俗的套用；另一方面，除了強調以佛教經典專業修煉的經驗為詮釋所依據的網絡設備，還特別闡明思惟的多重向度之開啟，不僅讓詮釋工作的 張力較有機會淋漓盡致發揮出來，也是抽絲剝繭地揭示實相的一項利器。 本文主幹的部分，按照非我、無常、生滅、緣起、空性、中道的順序，這些都是佛教哲學極具特色的基本概念，串連成共構的主軸，猶如 一系列導航的概念，基調在於拆解日常語言的慣用所衍生的遮蔽、限定、或封閉，包括對象化、事物化、個體化、外殼化、區別化、概念化等 問題，從而由縱貫的取向一躍而入，搭配因緣生滅變化的視角，將生命世界的實相，一層又一層揭露開來。在這一連串由基本概念接續運作的 進程，一棒接著一棒，登向巔峰的，正好是不二中道，亦即，拆解相對概念的區別化，從區別化的對峙與桎梏掙脫而出，傾全力打通緣生緣滅 的接連環節，進而趨向覺悟和涅槃。若以佛教解脫道骨幹經典的《阿含經》為依據，不勝枚舉的經證在在顯示，不二中道藉由非實體觀念，從 個體的閉鎖獲得釋放，並且藉由非二分式的思惟形態，從周遭邊界的封閉得到釋放，以如釋重負的姿態，心無旁騖地導向縱貫的因緣生滅的變 化之主流，生命世界的實相就這樣一一豁顯而出。
The purpose of this paper is to present Nondual Middle Way as guidance in ways of navigating to unfold Trough Reality of the Life World, and to explain the intent and rationale of Nondual middle Way in Buddhist doctrine. With expediency and prevalence of comparison and contrast, dichotomous ways of thinking and viewpoints have not only taken root in philosophical thinking and religious discourses, but have also been absorbed into the basic structure of everyday life, and are easily taken for granted and thus hard to detect or throw away. With its uniqueness of basic concepts and basic issues, Nondual Middle Way, originating from the inclination to spot and drop dichotomous ways of thinking, offers a creative point of view for both philosophy and religion. This unusual way of thinking is able to provide an extraordinary viewpoint to inspect the basic structures of philosophy and religion, and thus point out a way that might lead to further and deeper discussion in both fields. The undertaking of this paper is to answer the following questions: "Why should we view the life world as Nondual Middle Way?", "How can we view it as Nondual Middle Way?", and "As what kind of Nondual Middle Way should we view it ? "In order to answer the series of questions, the major methods employed in this paper focus on differentiating concepts, analyzing issues, elucidating connotation, and constructing argument. Concerning the configuration of discourses, this paper firstly define and make clear major concepts by emphasizing that Nondual Middle Way and Thorough reality are very innovative basic concepts for philosophy of religion and philosophy of life. In order to emphasize the idea of non-substantiality and to drop dichotomous ways of thinking from the very beginning, Nondual Middle Way is distinguished from dualism, monism, and pluralism. Then this paper seeks to exclude easy borrowings and rough copies of ideas. In addition, experience of practicing Buddhist teachings as a profession in accordance with related scriptures is also taken seriously as a reference for interpretation. Moreover, for the sake of making a more pertinent interpretation and to reveal Thorough Reality layer by layer, great emphasis is put on the explanation of methods of unlocking multi-faceted ways of thinking. The main subject matter of this paper is composed in sequence of concepts such as not-self, impermanence, birth and death, dependent arising (dependent origination), emptiness, and middle way. These distinctive concepts in Buddhist philosophy collectively form an axis that is set to remove shades, limits, and seals, such as problems of objectification, reification, individualization, demarcation, discrimination, and conceptualization, which derive from the daily language that are commonly used. From the point of view of conditioned arising and ceasing, the Through Reality of the life world is revealed layer by layer. And it is precisely Nondual Middle Way that pushes these basic concepts rolling, settles problems of comparison and contrast, breaks free from the tension and limitation of discrimination, makes a breakthrough in a series of conditioned arising and ceasing, and leads to Enlightenment and Nirv?na in the end. Various examples in the ?gama S?tras show that the idea of non-substantiality helps to free Nondual Middle Way from seals of individualization, and by non-dichotomous ways of thinking, borders around Nondual Middle Way are removed. Nondual Middle Way is thus able to approach the variations of causal conditions, and the Thorough Reality of the life world is thus unfolded.
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