An Understanding of Original Sin-- Through the Interpretations of Tennant, Rahner, and Ricoeur
|公開日期:||一月-1984||期刊:||國立臺灣大學哲學論評||頁數:||141-162||摘要:||原罪問題一直在西方的宗教哲學中佔有重要地位。歷代哲學家與神學家的討論幾乎已經窮盡了它在各方面的可能涵義。然而這個問題卻不曾得到徹底的解決，因為它在本質上是一種「奧秘」，一種與人自身的存在息息相關的奧秘。在某一意義上說，人若想充分理解自己，就必須對原罪問題進行深度的思考。本文將評析泰能特(F. R. Tennant, 1866-1957)、拉內(Karl Rahner, 1904-84)，與李格(Paul Ricoeur, 1913-)三人對於「原罪」的詮釋，試圖了解這個概念的三種主要探索途徑，亦即「自然神論的演化說」、「有神論的境遇說」、與「辯證論的象徵說」，進而提出一種對於人性本質問題（或者，更好說是奧秘）之可能的理解。本文之寫成，應感謝耶魯大學宗教系傅萊教授(Professor Hans Frei)在「神學的詮釋學」一課中之啟發與討論，以及同窗好友歐瑞根(Cyril O'Regan)的切磋與批評。現在自己重讀本文，覺得有些地方值得進一步深入辨析；這個想法或許留待他日以中文重寫這個題材時再來實行吧。
The problem of Original Sin, in itself, is no longer a dominant concern in the fields of both theology and philosophy. Scholars to this point in history have almost exhausted the possible interpretations of Original Sin. However, as an existential concept, or better an existential mystery, Original Sin lures those who are concerned with authentic being to contemplate it, reflect upon it, and then form a deeper understanding of themselves. This kind of deeper understanding, thought it might be different from individual to individual, is possible because the concept of Original Sin necessarily entails some other crucial concepts such as human freedom and the Image of God. Sin presupposes responsibility, which in turn requires human freedom as its premise. If man is not free, he cannot be responsible for what he has done. But, to be responsible one must be conscious of the distinction between good and evil. What, then, was the distinction between good and evil at the beginning of time? And what was man's consciousness in this pre-sinful period? Could we say that this consciousness of man is more original than Original Sin? Had this consciousness of man any relation to the Image of God which is supposed to be more original than Original Sin? This series of questions is, indeed, the peculiar product of the Christian tradition, but it can also man's own finitude is at the same time to consent to the Infinite. Failing to fulfill this obligation is to have an undue self-regard, or to have disproportion with himself. This deviation, occurring once and then time again, obscures the consciousness to the extent that the orientation become no longer clear. Departing from the Sacred or Being, the finite man "goes astray." Jesus' claiming, "I am the way, the truth, and the life," is thus the proclamation of the new creation. The reconciliation consists in the clarification of the Image of God through Jesus Christ's redemption.
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