A Discussion of Taiwan New Poetry Clubs’ Continuity and Dissolution
|關鍵字:||鬥爭;文學場域;鹽分地帶詩人群;風車詩社;銀鈴會;笠詩社;struggle;literary field;Saline Land poetry group;Windmill Poetry Society;Silver Bell Society;Li Poetry Society||公開日期:||2015||摘要:||本文以結社的角度重新探討台灣新詩文學史，說明台灣新詩社團在戰前與戰後所經歷的延續與斷裂。 透過Pierre Bourdieu的場域鬥爭的理論，發現詩人結社行為的原則，並非是以商業銷售量為主要鬥爭、定義自我的界限；社會、政治力量才是影響結社的關鍵，結社模式並可以粗略區分為「純美學」與「淑世政治」兩種典型。「淑世政治」為原則的結社，會呈現出社團與本身創作者喜好風格、態度無關，它是文人面向社會的一種宣誓，結盟的目的經常來自「除了文學」以外的社會活動。 而以「純美學」為目的的結盟，在文學場域受到「淑世政治」的理念鬥爭時，為了延續社團發展而發生美學重構，最常見的為改變自我宣稱、以換湯不換藥的方式繼續進行對抗。 對1920年代以降的新詩人、1930年代鹽分地帶詩人群與風車詩社、1940 年代銀鈴會與1960年代笠詩社的結社模式進行歷史觀察與文本分析後，發現戰前與戰後有完全相反的結社模式，台灣戰前的新詩社團以「淑世政治」型的現實主義力量最為龐大，到了戰後，卻轉以「純美學」模式為結社基礎。但他們都會遭遇挑戰的異端，也就是另一個「純美學」或「淑世政治」型的社團的挑戰，也就產生了鬥爭模式的循環。
This essay intends to discuss Taiwan literary history from the point-of-view of New Poetry Clubs in Taiwan, as well as explain the continuance and dissolution of Taiwan New Poetry Clubs immediately prior to- and following the Second World War. By means of Pierre Bourdieu’s concept “the field of struggle”, it becomes clear that the motivating principle behind the formation of these poetry clubs was not, in fact, the struggle for market competitiveness as a defining feature; instead, it was social and political powers which were the key factors. The structural models by which these groups adhered to can roughly be organized under two classifications: “aesthetic” and “pragmatic political”. Those poetry clubs which could be classified as “pragmatic political” would employ a style that reflected both societal themes, as well as the personal preferences of the poets themselves. Thus, the content of their written works was not a reflection of the poetry club itself; indeed, affiliation with such clubs provided “a feather is one’s cap”, with the formation of such groups often originating from “non-literary” pursuits. In contrast, “aesthetic” poetry clubs which found themselves at conflict with “pragmatic political” clubs in the literary field would often change their surface-affiliation, thus allowing them to continue along with their own proceedings unhindered. Through historical observation and literary analysis of of New Poetry Clubs from the 1920’s and onwards, including the 1930’s poetry groups “Saline Land” and “Windmill Poetry Society”, the 1940’s “Silver Bell Society” and the 1960’s “Li Poetry Society”, one may discover pre-war and post-war poetry club formations follow completely different models. Taiwan pre-war poetry clubs adhered to the “pragmatic political” model, whereas “aesthestic” model quickly became the norm in the post-war period. These two groups would later find themselves at constant opposing ends of conflict.
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