A Study Of Classical Literature And The Activities On Lin Ben Yuan’s Family Under The Relations Between FuJian And Taiwan Since 18th Century
|關鍵字:||林本源;板橋林家;菽莊;閩臺;林爾嘉;林景仁;林熊祥;Lin Ben Yuan;Classical Literature;Shu-Zhuang;Er-Jia Lin;King-Jin Lin;Xiung-Xiang Lin;Xiamen||公開日期:||2016||摘要:||在近現代閩臺文學與文化的歷史脈絡下，橫越臺灣海峽的大家族可謂成為一個重要的時代縮影，林家又因近代詭譎的東亞國際局勢變化，成為遊走東亞地理、又反映東亞歷史的關鍵大家族，見證了近現代閩臺局勢之變遷。然而對於林本源家族而言，過往常因其優異之政商表現，而使得其文學層面的表現易受人忽略，並且尚未出現針對其家族古典文學之整體綜論。因此本論文以林本源家族為研究中心，欲以近現代閩臺關係下的視角，探究其家族中的古典文學表現。 本文第二章先簡論林本源家族於閩臺間的角色意義，強調其特殊性與重要性，在此分為三個部分：第一部分是其家族形成過程與經營之道、第二部分為其家族於閩臺間文化與文學資本的累積、第三部份則是其家族文學在近代臺、中、日政治關係下的發展與特殊意義。論文第三章則將重心置於家族成員學養背景的探討，自清代至現代，自板橋到廈門、福州、海外，自漢學家塾至新式教育，其成員受教越顯多元而豐富。 論文後半將焦點集中在其家族成員的古典文學表現以及與其家族相關的古典詩社。第四章的重點在於「廈門」，乙未割臺後林家人西渡廈門，許多閩臺重要文人漸聚集於此，至1913 年林爾嘉於鼓浪嶼創立菽莊吟社，菽莊文人集團初步成形。1920 年代後，林景仁等林家詩人透過其往來閩臺時所締結之交誼網絡，漸擴大菽莊聲勢與影響力。而因1895 年乙未割臺而避地廈門的遺民文人，與因1911年辛亥革命而陸續南移的清廷遺老們，因緣際會聚集於菽莊，清末民初同光體閩派勢力漸於菽莊吟社壯大，使得此段發展得以北接以北京政權為主的中國文學史，東連以日本政權為主的殖民地臺灣文學史，並開啟近代帝國主義下閩臺文學之新章。 第五章的重點在於「臺灣」，西渡廈門後的林家人不僅數度返臺，更在返臺時帶來了更多閩地文人參與文學交流。初始以北臺重要詩社瀛社為主，而後林家人以友繫友，陸續於臺自設四個古典詩社，一個以林家詩人文中心的文人集團產生。從菽莊、瀛社到薇閣詩社，林家詩人發展不墜，而在戰後省內外詩人角力下的臺灣古典詩壇，林熊祥的出線，間接促成了詩壇的中興，並延續了林家古典詩發展之脈絡。 綜觀林家於閩臺間的文學發展並以緒論所提出的布爾迪厄（Bourdieu, Pierre）「場域」（Field）理論視之，可知林家於兩百多年來陸續累積了許多象徵資本（ Symbolic Capital ） ， 而詩社活動正是林家詩人於此場域中的「慣習」（Habitus），並吸引擁有同樣慣習的文人們，形成一個於閩臺間以林家詩人為中心的文人集團。本論文以閩臺關係作為視角、以場域概念作為研究方法，打破傳統自文學文本、單一詩社的研究框架，呈現具有價值且異於以往的研究成果，突顯菽莊吟社在閩臺文學空間場域中涉世、積極入世的一面，亦強調菽莊吟社容有中、臺、日三方詩人之現象可謂是「東亞性」的具體實踐，其中具有多元糾葛的複雜面向。
In the historical context of literature and culture between Fujian and Taiwan since the 18th century, Lin Ben Yuan’s Family can be considered a microcosm which reflected the social and cultural situation over that time period and become a vital family because of the international affairs. However, the literary achievement of the Lin Family was often ignored due to its prominent economic and political success. On this ground, my dissertation takes the Lin’s as the major subject and will discuss the development of classical literature of the Lin Family under the perspective of the relationship between Fujian and Taiwan. The second chapter is going to make a discussion on the development and the roles the Lin Family had played in the relationship between Fujian and Taiwan, and emphasize its particularity and significance. Firstly, I will explore how the Lin Family had influenced on the society between FuJian and Taiwan and accumulated the property in the past 240 years. Secondly, I will examine how the Lin Family had accumulated cultural and social capital between Fujian and Taiwan since the 18th century. Thirdly, based on the above, I would like to further elaborate on the development and special meanings of literature of Lin’s Family under the relations of international affairs between Taiwan, China and Japan since the late 19th century. The third chapter focuses on the educational background of the members in the Lin’s. They received multifaceted education in both traditional and new styles from Banqiao, Xiamen, Fuzhou and the others foreign countries. In the fourth chapter, I will pay attention to the classical literature field in Xiamen. After 1895, the members of the Lin’s and some scholars from Taiwan had gathered in Xiamen together and a scholars’ group based on the members of the Lin Family are gradually formed after Shu-Zhuang（菽莊） poets’ club was founded by Er-Jia Lin（林爾嘉） in Kulangsu in 1913. After the 1920s, King-Jin Lin（林景仁） and other members of the Lin’s expanded the influence of Shu-Zhuang poets’ club through the social network between Fujian and Taiwan. The scholars from Taiwan since 1895 and the Qing loyalists from Beijing since 1911 gathered in Shu-Zhuang poets’ club and the influence of Tongguang-Style poetics in Fujian grew with time in Shu-Zhuang. This fact connects the history of Chinese literature of Beijing government with the development of literature in Fujian and Taiwan under Japanese imperialism since the late 19th century. In the fifth chapter, I would like to focus on the classical literature field in Taiwan. After moving to Xiamen, the Lin Family not only went back to Taiwan several times, but also invited many scholars from Fujian which caused more interaction of literature between them. They participated in Ying poets’ club at first, and then established their own four poets’ clubs from 1918 to 1949. Finally, a scholars’ group based on the Lin’s had formed and these poets’ clubs were remarkably prosperous. Xiung-Xiang Lin（林熊祥）made the classical literature field thriving successfully under a competition between Taiwanese scholars and mainlander scholars, and allowed the Lin’s Family to continue their literary development. Drawing on the ‘field’ theory from Bourdieu, this dissertation argues that the Lin Family had accumulated a great amount of ‘symbolic capital’ since the 18th century. The activities of poets’ club were their ‘habitus’ that gathered scholars from Fujian and Taiwan and established a cultural elite community based on the Lin’s. The dissertation provides valuable contribution by adopting new perspectives and theories and emphasizes that there is still positive feature and complicated entanglements in Shu-Zhuang poets’ club which contained scholars from China, Taiwan and Japan.
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