|Title:||Aggressiveness of the growl-like timbre: Acoustic characteristics, musical implications, and biomechanical mechanisms||Authors:||Li-Ching Wang
|Keywords:||Aggressiveness | Beijing opera | Growl | Heavy metal | Spine stability||Issue Date:||2010||Journal Volume:||27||Journal Issue:||3||Start page/Pages:||209-221||Source:||Music Perception||Abstract:||
THE TERM GROWL TYPICALLY REFERS TO LOW-PITCHED, rough sounds uttered by animals. Humans occasionally use growl-like voices to express excessive emotions. Acoustically characterized by loud dynamics and low values of the harmonic-to-noise ratio, growl-like sounds usually express anger and excitement associated with aggression. We propose a biomechanical model relating the aggressive characteristic of the growl-like timbre to the motor mechanisms underlying growl production in humans, highlighting how an abdominal muscle contraction enhances spine stability, which plays a critical role in physical attacks. This model was supported by the experimental data of activation of the deepest abdominal muscle during resting, singing, and growling. We found a significant positive correlation between the abdominal muscle activity associated with producing voice and the perceived aggressiveness intensity of voice. The cognition of growl-like sounds is discussed from the perspectives of biomechanics, evolutionary biology, and cognitive science. © 2010 BY THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
|Appears in Collections:||醫學系|
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