Visual-auditory interaction in inattentional blindness
|Keywords:||視聽整合;注意力;不注意視盲典範;質地區隔;賽門效果;visual-auditory integration;attention;inattentional blindness paradigm;texture segregation;Simon effect||Issue Date:||2007||Abstract:||
過去研究所發現的各種視聽交互作用中，視覺刺激總是能被觀察者注意到的。如果觀察者無法主觀意識到視覺刺激，那麼視聽交互作用是否還有可能發生呢？本研究使用改良的不注意視盲典範（Moore & Egeth , 1997），並在不注意背景呈現時同步加入了一個聲音來檢驗聲音是否會影響背景的處理歷程。實驗一中，不注意的背景是由兩群不同方向的Gabor所組成，透過質地區隔可以顯示出鐵軌錯覺中的兩條V型鐵軌，參與者被要求對前景中的兩條水平線段做長度判斷。在一半的嘗試中同步呈現了一個聲音，另一半則否。結果發現加了聲音的嘗試，參與者對於線段的判斷發生了鐵軌錯覺，也就是完成了背景質地區隔的不注意處理；不加聲音的則沒有發生鐵軌錯覺。實驗二、三、四中，我們檢驗了三個關於此機制的假設，結果支持為視聽整合所造成。我們在實驗五、六中進一步檢驗了與反應端處理有關的賽門效果，也發現聲音可以促成此效果。綜合這些結果可知：與不注意背景同步呈現的聲音不只加速了低階的不注意處理歷程(質地區隔)；也促使了反應端的賽門效果， 顯示這種不注意的視聽整合在處理歷程中的不同層次都能夠發生。
Past studies have demonstrated visual-auditory interactions such as the McGurk effect (McGurk & MacDonald, 1976) and the sound-induced-flash illusion (Shams, Kamitani, & Shimojo, 2002). However, visual stimuli in these studies were well attended by the observers, and it remains unknown whether visual-auditory interactions also occur when the observers are unaware of the existence of the visual stimuli. We used the modified inattentional blindness paradigm of Moore and Egeth (1997) by adding a synchronous sound to examine whether sound can affect processing of unattended visual background. Experiment 1 used a texture segregation task in which the unattended background pattern was formed by texture segregation of different oriented Gabors to render the railroad track as in the Ponzo illusion. The participants were asked to judge the length of the two horizontal lines. Half of the trials were accompanied with a beep sound, and the other half were not. Results showed that in trials with beep sounds, the Ponzo illusion occurred; however, no Ponzo illusion was observed without beep sounds. In Experiments 2, 3, and 4, we tested 3 hypotheses about the mechanism and our results suggested that it was due to visual-auditory integration. Further, in Experiments 5 and 6, a response-end processing, accessory-stimulus Simon effect was examined, and we found that response-end processing also occurred in synchronous sound condition when observers were unattended to the accessory stimulus. These results suggest that adding a synchronous sound can speed up the low-level unattended visual processing (texture segregation) and make the high-level response-end processing (the Simon effect) possible. Thus, unattended visual-auditory integration can occur at different loci through the processing stream.
|Appears in Collections:||心理學系|
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