The Influence of Compartmentalization and Integration on Psychological Adjustment
|關鍵字:||多元文化;心理區隔;整合;心理適應;multicultural phenomenon;compartmentalization;integration;psychological adjustment||公開日期:||2008||摘要:||歷經了現代化的衝擊，現又逐步邁向全球化，華人社會面對東西方文化間彼此的搓揉，傳統現代交織，相依獨立並存，充份突顯社會變遷劇烈的過程。而這些多元價值雖豐富了社會既有的面貌，但也迫使個體無可避免地必須面對適應的問題。面對矛盾特質共存所可能引發的衝突，楊國樞（2003）提出區隔模式與整合模式作為可能的解困之道。本研究即針對以區隔或整合模式適應多元價值的有效性進行實徵檢驗。藉Showers（1992）的卡片分類作業測量個體的自我區隔程度，在研究一與研究二中，分別以傳統性與現代性和積極進取與順應謙讓兩組概念，表徵多元文化下相對應的文化意涵，檢驗自我區隔程度與心理適應的關係。本研究並考量中庸思維對上述關係之調節效果，以釐清因應型態背後的運作機制。研究一結果發現，在傳統性與現代性此一對應價值上，不論採用區隔或整合模式，對於心理適應的影響並無顯著差別。細究此結果可能是因為現今大學生普遍傾向現代化心理特質，面臨傳統性與現代性之間相互拉扯的頻率下降，是故從傳統性與現代性之對比，未能充份反應個體所面臨多元文化價值並存的衝突狀態。因此在研究二中，改以積極對應謙讓來表現多元文化衝突的可能。研究結果發現，對多元文化同時並存的個體而言，採取整合模式者較採取區隔模式者，擁有較佳的心理適應狀態。此外，中庸思維與整合模式間有顯著的正相關，反映出越傾向採取整合模式者，越能夠縱觀全局通盤考量，做出最適當的行動方案，從而展現行動者的彈性，在兼容並蓄的多元社會中，適應得更好。
Modernization and globalization have brought together values and concepts of diverse cultural traditions and provided ample opportunities for simultaneous activation of seemly conflicting cultural representations. It remains unclear, however, how one could successfully resolve these potential multicultural conflicts. Yang (2003) proposed that compartmentalization and integration are two ways to resolve the multicultural conflicts. This article followed Showers’ (1992) card sorting task to measure individual differences in the degree of compartmentalization and integration and compared the effect of compartmentalization and integration on psychological adjustments. Moreover, Zhong-Yong thinking style was hypothesized to be the underlying mechanism that leads to successful integration. Study 1 compared the differential effect of compartmentalization and integration of traditional and modern values on psychological adjustments. The results, however, were unstable. It is possible that because the current college students tended to be significantly high on modernity and low on traditionality, contrasting traditional and modern values became insensitive to index cultural conflicts. Thus, In Study 2, progressive and humble adjectives were used as material to measure degree of compartmentalization and integration. Results showed that for those people who adopted both progressive and humble values, integration strategy significantly outperformed the compartmentalization strategy on its effect on psychological adjustments. Furthermore, the integration tendency significantly correlated with Zhong-Yong thinking style. That is, people who are able to integrate the seemly conflicting values also showed the tendency to think globally and behave flexibly. The hypothesis that Zhong-Yong thinking style is a key component to integration was supported. The implications for multi-cultural conflict resolution were discussed.
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