Adolescent girls under stereotype threat: The effect of masculine traits on analytical performance and confidence
|關鍵字:||刻板印象威脅;性別刻板印象;數學;工具性特質;男性化特質;男女分班;stereotype threat;gender stereotype;math;instrumental traits;masculine traits;single-sex education||公開日期:||2008||摘要:||國內目前的中學教育制度基於性別平等和人格健全發展的理由，已大多由過去的男女分班制改變成男女合班。Spencer、Steele和Quinn（1999）發現，有男生在場和給予「女生數學比男生差」之性別刻板印象威脅訊息，會使女生的數學測驗表現比男生差，給予「男女生數學一樣好」之去威脅訊息則使男女表現一樣好。本研究欲了解臺灣青少女之邏輯分析（數理方面之共同基本能力）表現及信心是否同樣會受到性別刻板印象威脅訊息的影響，並檢驗女生的男性化特質高低是否對威脅訊息有不同程度的反應。本研究並探討「男女生的數理能力其實旗鼓相當、各有優勢」之去威脅訊息是否對女生的邏輯分析測驗表現與信心具鼓勵作用。同時也試圖了解大學和高中之不同發展階段、以及鎮日浸淫於不同情境的男女合校及女校的高中女生，所受的影響是否有差異。 共有241位大學女生（有男生在場116位、沒有男生在場125位）與270位高中女生（男女合班144位、女校126位）以閱讀測驗進行訊息操弄，隨機分成三組，分別為：「女生數理能力較男生差」（性別威脅訊息組）、不涉及性別刻板印象（無訊息組）、以及「男女生數理能力各有不同的優勢」（去威脅訊息組）。並以李美枝（1981）編製的中文版性別特質量表進行男性化特質高低分組。以有／無男生在場情境（2）× 訊息操弄（3）× 男性化特質高低（2）進行三因子共變數分析，發現「沒有男生在場」對大學女生會造成負面影響，「有男生在場」情境則會對高中女生產生負面影響。「性別威脅訊息」會使沒有男生在場的大學女生和低男性化特質的高中女生認為測驗難度較高。「去威脅訊息」並未出現預期的輔助效果，甚至對低男性化特質的高中、大學女生和有男生在場的高中女生都造成負向影響。本研究顯示有／無男生在場和性別刻板印象威脅訊息的確會對女生之表現造成影響，但對高中女生及大學女生的影響不盡相同，而高男性化特質的高中、大學女生的確較不易因情境和威脅的干擾而影響其對測驗的信心。
The secondary school educational environment in Taiwan has changed from single-sex to co-educational nowadays according to the reason of sex equality and the welfare of personality development. Spencer, Steele & Quinn (1999) found that giving female subjects the message of “Women perform more poorly than men on the math test” with male presence would worsen their math performance, while the “Women and men perform equally well on the math test” message makes them perform as well as men do. The present study intends to understand if local adolescent girls’ performance and confidence on analytical performance (the general mental ability of math and scientific knowledge) will also be affected by the gender stereotype threat (GST), if they react differently due to their masculine traits level, and if the message of “Women and men have distinctive superior math abilities” can increase adolescent girls’ performance and confidence. This study, meanwhile, also tries to know if different developmental stages such as university and high school students and the coeducation and single-sex educational environment would cause women react differently to GST. 241 female college students (116 with male presence, and 125 without male presence) and 270 female senior high school students (114 from coeducational school, and 126 from single-sex school) were randomly allocated to one of three reading tests conditions (increasing GST [Women perform more poorly than men on the math test] vs. without GST [the absence of message about sex] vs. reducing GST [Women and men perform equally well on the math test]) and separated into high/low masculine traits groups by the Chinese version of BSRI (Lee, 1981). The three factors ANCOVA on the with/without male presence condition(2) × messages (3) × high/low masculine traits groups (2) finds that “without male” presence will do harm to female college students while “with male presence” will worsen senior high females’ performance. The “Increasing GST”message makes female college students with male presence and female high school students with low masculine traits consider the test to be harder. The “reducing GST”message surprisingly does not benefit them but causes negative effects to college and high school students with low masculine traits and high school students with male presence. On the whole, this study supports the hypothesis that with/without male presence and GST messages do affect adolescent girls, college and senior high school students are affected in different ways, and female college and high school students with high masculine traits are least affected by GST.
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