Attentional Bias During Visual Threat Processing n Different Degree of Cockroach Fear Individuals: Time Course Analysis
|Keywords:||注意力偏誤;時間序列;點偵測作業;蟑螂畏懼症;害怕;attentional bias;time course;dot probe task;cockroach phobia;fear||Issue Date:||2009||Abstract:||
動機認知理論（cognitive-motivational theories）提出畏懼症者「過度警覺-逃避」之行為模式，是同時受到自動化與策略化之注意力偏誤（attentional bias）所影響。本研究包含兩個實驗，旨在由時間序列的角度探討高懼蟑組、中懼蟑組及低懼蟑組，在彩色蟑螂圖片與狗圖片配對所組成的點偵測作業上，其注意力偏誤反應特性的異同。藉由3別：高懼蟑組、中懼蟑組、低懼蟑組）× 2（蟑螂位置：左、右）× 2（偵測點位置：偵測點位置與蟑螂一致、偵測點位置與蟑螂不一致）× 3（刺激呈現時間：200ms、500ms、及2000ms）之混合設計，研究一（N = 46），結果顯示，在500ms時，高懼蟑組對蟑螂圖片有注意力逃避，但低懼蟑組與中懼蟑組對蟑螂圖片有注意力警覺；在2000ms時，高懼蟑組與中懼蟑組對於蟑螂圖片皆有注意力逃避，但低懼蟑組對於蟑螂圖片仍有注意力警覺。但在200ms時，三組並無顯著差異。研究二（N = 49），刺激呈現時間改為100ms、200ms和500ms。結果顯示，在100ms時，高懼蟑組與中懼蟑組對於蟑螂圖片有注意力警覺，低懼蟑組對於蟑螂圖片有注意力逃避；在200ms時，中懼蟑組對於蟑螂圖片有注意力警覺，但高懼蟑組則有注意力逃避。但在500ms時，三組並無顯著差異。綜上，結果顯示，高懼蟑組與中懼蟑組在注意力初期有自動化快速的注意力警覺反應，然而只有高懼蟑組在自動化注意力警覺後，在初期即逃避其畏懼相關聯刺激，此現象會使個體無法對刺激做出客觀的評估並對刺激習慣化。據此結果，本研究對於認知歷程在認知行為治療的應用以及未來研究方向提出討論。
Cognitive-motivational theories of phobias propose that patients’ behavior is characterized by a hypervigilance-avoidance pattern that interplays between automatic and strategic biases in attention. In two experiments, we investigated the time course of attentional bias for colorful cockroach pictures as compared to dog pictures by visual dot probe task in three groups varied with high, median, and low degree of cockroach fear. The present study was a mixed factorial design. In study 1 (N =46), the between subject factor was group (high, median, and low degree of cockroach fear), the within subjects factors were location of cockroach (right and left), location of dot (congruent to cockroach, and incongruent to cockroach) and presentation time (200ms, 500ms, and 2000ms). The results showed that for the 500ms condition, high fearful individuals attended away from roaches, but low and median fearful individuals attended to roaches. For the 2000ms, high and median fearful individuals attended away from roaches, but low fearful individuals still attended to roaches. There was no difference between the three groups for the 200ms condition. In study 2 (N =49), presentation time was varied as 100ms, 200ms and 500ms. The results showed that for the 100ms condition, high and median fearful individuals attended to roaches but low fearful individuals attended away from roaches. For the 200ms, median fearful individuals attended to roaches, but high fearful individuals attended away from roaches. There was no difference for the 500ms condition. Put together, the results indicated that both high and median cockroach fearful individuals initially directed their attention towards fear-relevant stimuli in a rapid and automatic way; however, only high fearful individuals showed a trend indicating that the initial facilitated attention was rapidly followed by avoidance which has been thought to prevent objective evaluation and habituation. The implications of the results with regard to cognitive processing and cognitive behavior therapy and future research possibilities are proposed.
|Appears in Collections:||心理學系|
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