|Title:||Ophiocordyceps formosana improves hyperglycemia and depression-like behavior in an STZ-induced diabetic mouse model||Authors:||Huang C.-W.
|Keywords:||Depression;Insulin insensitivity;Ophiocordyceps formosana||Issue Date:||2016||Journal Volume:||16||Journal Issue:||1||Source:||BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine||Abstract:||
Background: A newly defined Cordyceps species, Ophiocordyceps formosana (O. formosana) has been implicated in multitudinous bioactivities, including lowering glucose and cholesterol levels and modulating the immune system. However, few literatures demonstrate sufficient evidence to support these proposed functions. Although the use of Cordyceps spp. has been previously addressed to improve insulin insensitivity and improve the detrimental symptoms of depression; its mechanistic nature remains unsettled. Herein, we reveal the effects of O. formosana in ameliorating hyperglycemia accompanied with depression. Methods: Diabetes was induced in mice by employing streptozotocin(STZ), a chemical that is toxic to insulin-producing £] cells of the pancreas. These streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice showed combined symptoms of hyperglycemia and depressive behaviors. Twenty-four STZ-induced mice were randomly divided into 3 groups subjected to oral gavage with 100 £gL solution of either PBS or 25 mg/mL Ophiocordyceps formosana extract (OFE) or 2 mg/mL rosiglitazone (Rosi, positive control group). Treatments were administered once per day for 28 days. An additional 6 mice without STZ induction were treated with PBS to serve as the control group. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a glucose tolerance test and levels of adiponectin in plasma and adipose tissue were also quantified. Behavioral tests were conducted and levels of monoamines in various brain regions relating to depression were evaluated. Results: HPLC analysis uncovered three major constituents, adenosine, D-mannitol and cordycepin, within O. formosana similar to other prestigious medicinal Cordyceps spp.. STZ-induced diabetic mice demonstrated decreased body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while these symptoms were recovered in mice receiving OFE treatment. Moreover, the OFE group displayed improved insulin sensitivity and elevated adiponectin within the plasma and adipose tissue. The anti-depressive effect of OFE was observed in various depression-related behavior tests. Concurrently, neurotransmitters, like 5-HT and dopamine in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus were found to be up-regulated in OFE-treated mice. Conclusions: Our findings illustrated, for the first time, the medicinal merits of O. formosana on Type I diabetes and hyperglycemia-induced depression. OFE were found to promote the expression of adiponectin, which is an adipokine involved in insulin sensitivity and hold anti-depressive effects. In addition, OFE administration also displayed altered levels of neurotransmitters in certain brain regions that may have contributed to its anti-depressive effect. Collectively, this current study provided insights to the potential therapeutic effects of O. formosana extracts in regards to hyperglycemia and its depressive complications. ? 2016 The Author(s).
adenosine; adiponectin; antidepressant agent; antidiabetic agent; cordycepin; mannitol; Ophiocordyceps formosana extract; plant extract; rosiglitazone; unclassified drug; adiponectin; biological product; glucose blood level; streptozocin; adipose tissue; animal experiment; animal model; animal tissue; Article; behavior change; body weight; brain cortex; brain region; controlled study; corpus striatum; depression; elevated plus maze test; glucose tolerance test; high performance liquid chromatography; hippocampus; hyperglycemia; insulin sensitivity; intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test; male; mouse; nonhuman; open field test; Ophiocordyceps; Ophiocordyceps formosana; protein blood level; protein expression; psychological aspect; streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus; tail suspension test; upregulation; animal; animal behavior; blood; C57BL mouse; chemistry; depression; drug effects; experimental diabetes mellitus; glucose blood level; hyperglycemia; Hypocreales; pathophysiology; Adiponectin; Animals; Behavior, Animal; Biological Products; Blood Glucose; Body Weight; Depression; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental; Hyperglycemia; Hypocreales; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Streptozocin
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