|Title:||Novel Insights of Lymphomagenesis of Helicobacter pylori-Dependent Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma||Authors:||SUNG-HSIN KUO
|Keywords:||CagA; Helicobater pylori; MALT lymphoma; T-cell; Tregs||Issue Date:||17-Apr-2019||Publisher:||MDPI||Source:||Cancers||Journal Volume:||11||Journal Issue:||4||Abstract:||
Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the most common subtype of gastric lymphoma. Most gastric MALT lymphomas are characterized by their association with the Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and are cured by first-line HP eradication therapy (HPE). Several studies have been conducted to investigate why most gastric MALT lymphomas remain localized, are dependent on HP infection, and show HP-specific intratumoral T-cells (e.g., CD40-mediated signaling, T-helper-2 (Th2)-type cytokines, chemokines, costimulatory molecules, and FOXP3+ regulatory T-cells) and their communication with B-cells. Furthermore, the reason why the antigen stimuli of these intratumoral T-cells with tonic B-cell receptor signaling promote lymphomagenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma has also been investigated. In addition to the aforementioned mechanisms, it has been demonstrated that the translocated HP cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) can promote B-cell proliferation through the activation of Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP-2) phosphorylation-dependent signaling, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, the expression of CagA and these CagA-signaling molecules is closely associated with the HP-dependence of gastric MALT lymphomas (completely respond to first-line HPE). In this article, we summarize evidence of the classical theory of HP-reactive T-cells and the new paradigm of direct interaction between HP and B-cells that contributes to the HP-dependent lymphomagenesis of gastric MALT lymphomas. Although the role of first-line HPE in the treatment of HP-negative gastric MALT lymphoma remains uncertain, several case series suggest that a proportion of HP-negative gastric MALT lymphomas remains antibiotic-responsive and is cured by HPE. Considering the complicated interaction between microbiomes and the genome/epigenome, further studies on the precise mechanisms of HP- and other bacteria-directed lymphomagenesis in antibiotic-responsive gastric MALT lymphomas are warranted.
|Appears in Collections:||免疫學研究所|
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