Military Forces in the Second Half of the Northern Song (A.D. 1022-1126)
|作者:||方震華||關鍵字:||武力;文武關係;北宋士人;文化;Military forces;civil-military relation;Northern Song China;literati culture||公開日期:||31-七月-2003||出版社:||臺北市：國立臺灣大學歷史學系暨研究所||摘要:||過去史家多強調宋代士人常根據儒家和
This project tries to research the Song literati’s ideas on military forces from the Renzong reign (1022-1063) to the end of the Northern Song, a period in which civil officials controlled most political power. Modern historians paid little attention to this subject, because they believed that the Song literati had little interest on military issues, a result of their Confucian learning which contained strong anti-bellicose concepts. Based on Confucian and Daoist principles, undoubtedly, some Northern Song literati advocated the ideals that political leaders should rule their states by moral principles and civil administration, rather than military forces. However, this political ideal did not prevent the Song literati from using military forces to handle crises within and without. The anti-bellicose ideology of the civil officials, thus, was only a part of the whole story. They still had pragmatic concerns on military forces, which has not been researched by modern historians. In the mind of literati, I will study, what were the political roles armies played and what were the functions of military forces for the rule of a state. By researching the relationship between the literati’s ideological concepts on military forces and military policies in reality, my arguments include following points: First, Song civil officials considered that military force was crucial to their regime. Practical issues were their main concerns of whether to deploy armies, and moral principles seldom influenced their decisions. Second, civil officials paid more attentions to domestic uprisings than to frontier conflicts, so they might ignore the attack of foreigners, but always suppress local rebels by forces. Third, the main function of armies, in the mind of civil elite, was to maintain political and social orders. For this reason, civil officials considered effective control to be the primary issue of military policies, even though this inclination might undermine the quality of the Song armies. Through studying the ideas of literati on forces and armies, this project improves our understanding on the Northern Song literati culture, military policies and political history.
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