From Farm to Table: Agricultural Production and Food Consumption of the Taiwanese Han during the Qing Dynasty
|關鍵字:||農業生產體系;食物消費;物質生活;漢人移民;Agricultural Production System;Food Consumption;Material Life;Han Immigrants||公開日期:||2006||摘要:||本文主要探討清代臺灣漢人，如何藉由農業生產活動來滋養整個移民社會，及其在此基礎上所形成的食物消費趨向。
Abstract: This dissertation is an exploration of how the Han of the Qing Dynasty in Taiwan nourished an immigrant society through various agricultural developments, and upon this foundation created for a trend of food consumption. There are two principal methods of research involved in this study: the first is comprehensive observation; using the concept of a production system to observe the principal of production in small Han Chinese farms, analyzing the method of integrated organic farming within this system of agriculture, and exploring the characteristics of its food resource production. Secondly, differentiating three systems of agricultural production in Taiwanese farming during the Qing Dynasty: the non-irrigated model, the paddy field model, and the hilly model, based on comparative analysis of agricultural production systems. This is done for the purpose of understanding various commonalities and particularities of acquisition and utilization of food resources of each model. Based on the discussion in this text, it will be shown that the production of food resources and their variance in the non-irrigated regions of southern Taiwan, the paddy field regions of the center and the north as well as the low lying hilly mountain regions, constitute the key reasons for differences in food consumption in the each region of the island; thus making the production dependence of food resources on commodity crop cultivation a common ground. After intense disposition towards commercialization of sugar cane, rice, and tea, they became the primary crops used in trade. Coordinating cultivation of primary crops and secondary crops in addition to other agricultural products constituted the main food source for basic foods in the everyday lives of immigrants. With respect to consumption, as these edibles were transformed into sustainable foods, namely rice, vegetables and dimsum, farmers prepared meals, they plowed the ash from their fires into the land thus replenishing the soil, in addition, they seasoned and salted foods thus preserving them, in this way they went a step further to decrease cost and urge food consumption; in doing so, the entire agricultural system became more closely integrated. In summary, immigrants not only utilized the lowest possible cost, fulfilling basic food demand, their activities of food consumption also enabled the agricultural system to reap high profits. On the other hand, in order to create an interpersonal network Han immigrants, physical wellbeing and other such demands, placed emphasis on holding banquets, the presentation of sacrificial offerings, and the wide use of addictive substances. Because they placed importance on cash crops, and non-sustainable agriculture, they not only largely consumed rich profits acquired in agricultural production, but also adversely affected the health of the immigrants. Low cost of sustainable food consumption, in sharp contrast to the excessive waste of land in non-sustainable food consumption, can be regarded as the significant feature for the agricultural societal shift in the pattern of food consumption during the Qing dynasty in Taiwan. In addition, towards the end of the Qing as ports were opened to more foreign imports, accompanying a general rise in affluence, the tastes of the rising gentry, the expansion of sources of general foodstuffs, and increase in trade, Taiwanese foods began a tendency towards the exquisite; one of delicacies, gradually creating a refined style of food consumption in Taiwan.
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