The Linguistic Turn(s) in Modern China
|關鍵字:||語言轉向;現代中國語言學;國語運動;章太炎;馬建忠;魯迅;Linguistic Turn;Linguistics in Modern China;Chinese National Language Movement;Zhang Taiyen;Ma Jianzhong;Lu Xun||公開日期:||2007||摘要:||傳統社會中，價值秩序維持了長期的穩定，承載價值的語言，於是被等同於價值本身，被賦予本質性的意義。當社會各領域日益分化，價值領域的和諧一致逐漸散為碎片。作為建構、溝通價值的媒介，語言和意義之間聯繫的任意和分歧，也將為人們所察覺。這篇論文旨在討論在舊秩序崩毀的情況下，近代中國知識份子對於語言和價值問題之危機的思考。本文以清季民初時期，古典語文學、歷史語言學、現代語法學、現代文學等知識領域為對象，分析其方法論的預設和技術面的論戰中關於語言的想像，指出近代中國語文的變革不僅是表面上文體的更替、詞彙的輸入，以及其間新、舊兩派知識人文化取向的改變，而是兩種不同語言想像的變遷。詞與物在這時分離開來，語言成為獨立的知識客體，不復在古典語言秩序中與價值體系緊密結合。在對語言原初意義的歷史探索中，時間軸上各點的流變，取代了原初意義的權威；在對語言自身結構的考察裡，隱身在語言背後的說話者被察覺，說話者的個別意志取代了古典的和諧秩序；這使得語言不再擁有形而上的地位，與普遍性的意義相連，而是被不同的說話者運用與解釋，它不再為這個世界規範應有的秩序，而僅僅是歷史時間中的社會現象。整個近代中國語言想像的變遷，便是在穩固的古典語言秩序瓦解之後，知識份子不斷試圖重建詞與物的聯繫，卻又歸於失敗的過程。在古典秩序消逝之後，語言秩序（及其所承載的價值秩序）的分歧命運，為各種政治意識型態所競逐的處境，正如同韋伯所說的諸神之爭。可以說，這既是語言理解方式的典範轉移，也反映了當時知識份子對於傳統價值崩解危機的思考。
In traditional society, the order of value remains stable for a long time. Accordingly, the language that carried value is equal to the value itself and given intrinsic meaning. When the regions of society differentiated, the consistency and harmonization of value region broke into pieces. The arbitrariness and divergence between language, as the vehicle to communicate and construct order of value, and meaning, will be aware of. The purpose of this thesis is to probe into the thoughts about the problem and crisis between language and value by modern Chinese intellectuals in their disordered world. This thesis will investigate the philology, historical linguistics, grammar, modern literature in modern China, and analysis the imagination of language in their postulate of methodology and disputation of technical aspect. The transformation of modern Chinese language region is not only the variation of the style of writing, the importation of new words and concepts, and the differences between new style and old fashion intellectuals, but a transformation of imagination of language. In this time, the word and the thing separated, language was no longer a part of the system of value in classical linguistic order, but became an independent object of knowledge. In the historical studies of original meaning of word, the becoming and variation of meaning on the time axis, replaced the authority of original meaning. In the studies of structure and rules of language itself, the speaker behind language was aware of, and the harmonization of classical order superseded by the individual will of the speaker. Thus, language lost metaphysic status which connected to universal meaning, and will be controlled and defined by different speaking subjects. It is only a social phenomenon in historical time, and no longer given the norm to this world. In short, the transformation of the imagination of language in modern China is a process in which intellectuals reconstructed the connection between the word and the thing incessantly, and finally failed. After the classical order went by, the order of language (and the order of value which carried) just like the “competition of gods” as Max Weber said, became object contended and explained by vary political forces. In this aspect, this is the paradigm shift of the way by which people comprehend language, and also refract the thoughts in which intellectuals think about the crisis about disorder of traditional value.
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