The He-Dong Pei Families of the Wei, Jin & Northern and Southern Dynasties (220-589 A.D.): A Case Study of Political Actions and Cross-Regions Developments of Chinese Medieval Aristocracy
|關鍵字:||河東裴氏;魏晉南北朝;士族;地域;政治;He-dong Pei families;Wei, Jin & Northern and Southern Dynasties;Chinese medieval aristocracy;Region;Politics||公開日期:||2008||摘要:|| 河東裴氏是一支興起於漢魏之際，並綿延發展至唐代的士族，其活躍的時間約歷七百餘年之久，大致與中國中古士族社會自形成至衰微的歷史過程相始終，可知河東裴氏乃中國中古士族的其中一個典型代表，其發展歷程具有指標性意義。 本文首章為序論，第二章首先從傳世文獻及碑刻的記載切入，對河東裴氏的源起進行探討，第三章、第四章則針對漢魏西晉時期的河東裴氏進行了深入的考論與分析。透過對裴氏人物官歷、人際往來及姻婭關係的仔細考辨，可知河東裴氏在曹魏時期的興起，關鍵在於當時裴潛父子與司馬懿家族的頻繁往來，其密切的關係使裴潛的子孫在曹魏後期的激烈政爭中倖存，並且迅速重振其地位。西晉開國後，河東裴氏人物遍仕於朝，並與八王之亂中的要角東海王司馬越構成政治、婚姻上的緊密結合。這是河東裴氏大盛於魏晉時期的主要因素。 在兩晉之際的大亂中，河東裴氏受到嚴重打擊，在當時局勢中的重要性急遽衰落。不過，由於四散至各地的裴氏人物均在亂局中順利存活下來，河東裴氏才得以保留其血脈，但在兩晉大亂之後的三百餘年當中，河東裴氏未能找回其於魏晉時期那種政治、社會地位均盛的風光；本文第五章便是針對這段期間裴氏如何在各地域尋求發展的問題進行研究，從中觀察至隋唐時期又趨興盛的河東裴氏，在東晉南北朝的三百餘年當中，如何發展以延續其氏族的整體活力。值得深思的是：被唐人目為「關中郡姓」的河東裴氏，之所以能在隋唐之際迅速提升其政治、社會地位，其中的關鍵人物竟非那些加入關隴集團的裴氏成員，反而是裴矩、裴蘊等在發展歸屬上較為邊緣化、但在政壇活躍的裴氏人物。由此可見個人的力量對整個氏族發展方面的影響力，實也不容小覷，也可看出在士族族中個人人際網絡與際遇的重要性。 從河東裴氏在南北朝時期於各地域的多元發展歷程，可看到單一士族所可能具有的多種面貌。南北朝時期的河東裴氏各支系，其活動形態或近於「寄生官僚」，或較具地方鄉里的「名望家」特色，由此可知一支被稱為「士族」的「氏族」，在其所繫領的郡望之下，其實有著種種存在形態與組成內涵各異的多元類型，不同類型的支系對於該士族整體的影響也是各有異同的。 值得注意的是：由河東裴氏的例子來看，不論是「寄生官僚」或是「名望家」，這兩種對於士族屬性的定義，或者說是士族在維持其存續發展時所採取的姿態，它們彼此之間未必是零和關係，對於一支士族的興盛與否，也沒有必然的影響。在地域化或中央化等長期發展的歷史過程中，「寄生官僚」與「名望家」的屬性與特徵，必然會重複並反覆地出現在同一支裴氏家族身上。由河東裴氏的具體個案研究，可看到學界既有理論本身的參照例證，也可看到理論本身的侷限性。
The He-dong Pei families belonged to Chinese medieval aristocracy, rising in the period between the Eastern Han and Wei Dynasties, continuing their development to the T’ang. The evolution and glory of the He-dong Peis lasted about seven hundred years, approximately equal to the whole historical process of Chinese medieval aristocracy from rise to collapse. Accordingly, we can regard the He-dong Peis as an indicative representation of Chinese medieval aristocracy. The first chapter of this thesis is the introduction. Following is the second chapter, tracing the He-dong Peis’ origins by analyzing the annals including the Chinese official historiography, historical literature, and the records on tablets. Meanwhile, the third and fourth chapters explore the He-dong Peis of the Eastern Han, Wei and Western Jin Dynasties in depth. Through the accurately dissecting toward the background, official experience, interpersonal relations, and connections based on intermarriage of the He-dong Peis, we can realize that the most important factor of the Peis’ rising in the Cao Wei Dynasty is the close association between the two families of Pei Qian（裴潛）and Sima Yi（司馬懿）. Pei Qian’s descendants could survived the bloody political conflict in the later ages of Cao Wei because of their intimate relationship with the Simas, moreover, the Peis rapidly reconstructed their political status. In the Western Jin, many of the Peis secured high-class official positions, and constituted tight combinations on politics and intermarriage with Sima Yue, the Prince of Dong-hai, who was one of the main political and military leaders in War of the Eight Princes（八王之亂）. What mentioned above was the mainspring of the He-dong Peis’ flourishing in the Wei and Western Jin Dynasties. During the chaos between the Western and Eastern Jin, the He-dong Peis encountered severe buffets, losing their influence fast. However, the He-dong Peis could still keep their blood, for several members of the Peis moving to the regions successfully survived; nevertheless, in the following three hundred years the Peis couldn’t retrieve the spectacular glory and nobility their ancestors of Wei and Western Jin Dynasties possessed. The fifth chapter of this thesis concentrates on how the plural Pei families migrated and developed in several different regions, analyzing how the He-dong Peis, who revived in the Sui and T’ang Dynasties, went on evolving to maintain the strength of the whole Pei clan. It’s considerable that the He-dong Peis, who were regarded as one of the local leading clans of Guanzhong（關中）during the T’ang Dynasty, promoted their political and social status both substantially and rapidly between the Sui and T’ang Dynasties, and the most influential men contributing to the above-mentioned prosperity weren’t those members of the Peis joining the Group of Guan-Long（關隴集團）but the ones who were active in politics with rather marginal background, like Pei Ju（裴矩）and Pei Yun（裴蘊）. Judging from these stated above, it was apparent that the prospects of one clan, which was a member of Chinese medieval aristocracy, were deeply influenced by the actions of the individual members as well, and the importance of both the interpersonal relations and personal experiences of the individual members of that clan was obvious and clear. It showed several types one single clan of Chinese medieval aristocracy might be with the multiple developments of the He-dong Pei families during the Southern and Northern Dynasties in various regions. In this period, Some branches of the Pei families seemed to be the “parasitic bureaucracy”（寄生官僚）, and the others seemed to be the “local leaders with charisma and prestige”（名望家）much more. According to the facts, we can realize that one clan which was considered a member of Chinese medieval aristocracy contained kinds of existence shapes composed of different contents and conditions. Furthermore, each branch also had different effects on the whole clan. Through the case of the He-dong Peis, we could realize that the two ideas “parasitic bureaucracy” and “local leaders with charisma and prestige” were not only the definitions of the character of Chinese medieval aristocracy, but also the attitudes taken by the members of Chinese medieval aristocracy to keep their existence and development; there was no zero-sum relationship between the two ideas, which also had no consequential influence on the rising and declining of the members of Chinese medieval aristocracy. In the long-term historical process of regionalization or centralization, the internals and characters of the two ideas mentioned above should come to each branch of the Pei families repeatedly. We can see some historical actions of the Peis in the concrete case study of the He-dong Pei families proving these previous theories, but we can also perceive the limitations of these theories through this case study.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。