The Land Reclamation and the Ethnic Interactions in Tung-shih of Middle Taiwan as Viewed from the official Policy toward the Aboriginal Boundary (1761-1901)
|關鍵字:||東勢;土牛;岸裡社;軍工匠;番割;林爽文之亂;開山撫番;撫墾;Tung-shih;T’u-niu（boundary fort）;An-li she（An-li tribe）;chun kung chiang（Naval Shipyard workers）;fan ke（aboriginal intermediate）;Lin Shuang-wen Revolt||公開日期:||2008||摘要:||本文從清代番界政策的演變，試圖釐清臺中東勢的土地開墾與族群互動歷程。清廷雖於乾隆二十六年（1761）在石岡設立土牛界碑，但岸裡社僱工如黃懷春等漢佃仍能以代番納餉的方式，啟動土牛界外的私墾。其後軍工匠人越過大甲溪，來到鬱鬱蒼蒼的東勢山場採製木料，開闢了今日巧聖仙師廟一帶的傳統聚落—匠寮。由於軍工匠人具有合法身份，一旦與護衛熟番發生爭訟，官府往往以辦料為重，不願答應熟番將軍工寮移往他處或是限定入山時間、防範假冒身份的呈請，反而一再督促熟番加以護衛，造成原漢勢力的消長。 林爽文之亂時，番割劉中立聯絡泰雅族人追剿林黨，立下了汗馬功勞，成為東勢開發史上的重要功臣。其後他又與泰雅族人合作開鑿水圳，解決東勢丘陵的取水問題，因而建立民庄與部落之間的和平關係，並影響日治初期的綏撫政策。 林爽文之亂後的地權清釐，使得東勢地區大多由界外轉變成熟番保留區，漢佃以一人或數人為墾首的方式，召集股夥向番業主贌耕田園，開闢了散在大甲溪沖積台地上的防禦性集村。熟番在土地典賣予漢佃之後，他遷至埔里盆地，直至今日，在東勢留下了以低廉價格承買熟番土地的傳說故事。 國家力量直到開山撫番戰爭及設立撫墾局之後，才推進到番界以東的原住民部落。撫墾機構雖被批評為只做物質籠絡的工作，事實上貢獻不小。從東勢角撫墾署的報告中，可窺出撫墾署對部落實況的深入瞭解以及所建立之和約關係的作用，反映出原漢之間的族群互動狀況以及官方力量對部落社會的轉變，為日後理蕃政策之確立提供豐富的資訊。
This thesis is intended to deal with the problem of land reclamation and ethnic interactions in Tung-shih area of middle Taiwan through the evolutions of the Ch’ing’s policy toward the aboriginal boundary. Although the government set up the T’u-niu boundary epitaph at Shih-kang village in 1761, the Han Chinese tenants of the An-li tribe, such as Huai-tsum Huang, could still penetrate the boundary for land reclamations through paying tax on behalf of civilized aborigines. Later on, the patent lumber-millers（Timber-producers） of Naval Shipyards（chun-kung chiang）, crossing the Ta-chia Valley, entered Tung-shih to mill lumber and thus created a traditional settlement, Chiang-liao, in the area of present Ch''iao-sheng-hsien-shih Temple. Once the disputes between the patent lumber-millers（Timber-producers） and the aborigines occurred, the government, in consideration of safely acquiring lumber, would generally protect the former as they held legal status, and would not transfer the timber-making station from one place to the other, or limit the time of entering mountains, or prevent forferies, as requested by the aborigines. On the contrary, the civilized aborigines were urged to safeguard the patent lumber-millers（Timber-producers） and thus resulted in their being dominated by the Han Chinese eventually. During the Lin Shuang-wen Revolt, Tshung-li Liu, an aboriginal intermediate （Fan-ke）, contributed greatly by winning the cooperation of the Atayals for the pacification, and thus turned into an important pioneer in the development of Tung-shih. He then cooperated with the Atayals for building irrigation ditches to solve the problem of water supply, and consequently established a peaceful relation between the Han villages and the aboriginal tribes, which even affected the pacification policy of the Japanese period. The re-organization of land rights after the Lin Shuang-wen Revolt transformed most of the Tung-shih area from an un-civilized region into a civilized one. Therefore, the Han tenants, singles or groups, called up some partners to rent lands from the aboriginal land-holders and thus established a chain of defensive villages spreading in the area of Ta-chia Valley, from Shih-pi-keng in the north to Ta-mau-pu in the south. The civilized aborigines migrated to the Pu-li Basin of central Taiwan after selling or leasing their lands to the Chinese, leaving behind various stories about land purchases at low prices. The official power had not reached the aboriginal tribes in the east of the boundary until the beginning of the aboriginal pacification wars and the establishment of Pacification Offices. The contributions of the Pacification Offices should not be under-valued, in spite of their being criticized as doing nothing but woo the aborigines materialistically. The reports of Tung-shih Pacification Office, containing the information about tribal realities and the mutual commitments between the Hans and the aborigines, reflected ethnic interactions and the impacts of official authority on the tribal society, and subsequently provided the later policy-makers with valuable information.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。