Wu Tai Shan as Sacred Site: The Formation and Development of Buddhist Sacred Mount Worship in Medieval China
|關鍵字:||五臺山;文殊;聖山;巡禮;華嚴經;WuTai Shan （Mount Wu Tai）;MañjuśrīSacred Mountain;Pilgrimage;Avatamsaka Sutra（Buddhavatamsaka Sutra）||公開日期:||2009||摘要:||五臺山由於其自然環境，最晚在北朝時期，即被視為適合修行的靈地。北朝時期，已為區域信仰中心的五臺山，時有僧人入山修行，並多以禪修頭陀行為主，反映北朝禪修風氣之盛。然此時期的五臺山並非僅有佛教信仰，還兼有神仙色彩，說明當時佛教與神仙信仰並存發展的現象，亦展現於五臺山中。北朝時期雖已將《華嚴經》〈菩薩住處品〉所云清涼聖地與五臺山相比附，但此時五臺山佛教的發展自有特色，並尚未在文殊道場的影響下發展。 在唐初的宗教政策之下，五臺山多少受到官方的注意與支持。在此發展趨勢中，五臺山與《華嚴經》中所言文殊清涼道場的連結，也成為推動華嚴信仰的一環。在武則天的支持下，五臺山與文殊清涼聖境的連結受到君主的認可與支持，五臺山的發展就此開始與其為文殊菩薩人間道場的說法相連結，不再是兼具神仙色彩的佛教修行靈地。然此階段五臺山佛教寺院與僧人的活動，仍可清楚見到此地尚處初興階段的痕跡。無論是寺院規模，或是僧人活動，均說明自北朝以降至武則天開始重視之間，五臺山的建設與發展並不特別興盛，主要以配合禪修、頭陀行而立的蘭若、石窟寺為主。 五臺山文殊道場在武則天的支持之下由初興而奠基，至玄宗、代宗二朝，在君主推動護國密教的影響下，在密教之中扮演重要護國角色的文殊菩薩轉而成為君主大力支持崇信的對象。在武周時確立以文殊菩薩道場為核心價值的五臺山，於代宗時期受到君主的大力支持，成為密教文殊信仰發展的一環。 在此氛圍之下，五臺山雖因密教文殊信仰受到重視，但山中佛教的發展並未全然轉向密教法門。除了代宗大力建設的金閣寺外，其他寺院也在此大受支持的階段，全力發展。除此之外，諸多於五臺山發生的神異傳說與經典中文殊好化現以智慧教化的形象完全結合，求見文殊以獲得智慧，得入化寺親聞佛菩薩說法，乃至於接受菩薩點化以使修行更上一層等祈求，使得入山巡禮成為五臺山信仰最重要的信仰活動。 五臺山佛教在入山巡禮者日益增多的情況下，獲得更多的支持。包含山中寺院與僧人所受的供養，以及漸有高僧入山駐錫修道，均使五臺山佛教極具規模，不但有作為義理傳播中心的寺院，有名僧駐錫其中講經傳法，還有諸多施主供養佈施。在此基礎之上，五臺山不僅因其為文殊菩薩道場而興盛，更成為佛教傳播的重心。 在性質轉變、規模完備之後，德宗以降至文宗時期，可謂唐代五臺山信仰發展的鼎盛時期。此時的五臺山已成為佛教信仰者共同崇信的聖山道場，具有重要的地位。在此影響力下，君主與國家除了持續支持建設，並以之為國家的行香道場以外，更在五臺山設置國家戒壇，使五臺山成為全國僧眾受戒依歸之所，在佛教界中具有崇高地位。除了國家以規範強調五臺山的地位外，清涼聖境作為菩薩化現人間的特殊場域，吸引更多信眾入山巡禮。入五臺山的交通路線中以及山區之中各臺之間的普通院，即是入山巡禮者休憩飲食的場所，顯見此時期入山巡禮風氣之盛，入山信眾之多，以致有此需求。於此階段，山中寺院規模龐大，僧團規制成熟，以致於官方必須針對五臺山的特殊情況，另外設置專屬於五臺山的僧官體制。 不過，受到君主與官方的重視與依賴，也導致五臺山在會昌法難中成為政策執行的指標，因而受到嚴重的破壞。武宗朝後，宣宗雖多次支持興復五臺山佛教，但在晚唐中央勢黜，政治社會動亂的情況下，五臺山佛教的發展自然已大不如前。然而已然確立的聖山信仰，並未因此而消失。相對於動亂頻仍的關中、河北與江南地區，五臺山所在的山西北部相對穩定，加上為佛教傳播圈認定為聖山道場的地位，使得五臺山成為唐末五代時期北方僅存的佛教重鎮之一，此由五臺山僧長職位的穩定傳承可以得見。 北宋初年，宋廷雖統一全國，但北邊卻有遼朝與之相抗。五臺山位處山西北部，便成為宋遼邊境。位處邊境的五臺聖山，由於政治形勢與戰略位置，扮演著雙重角色。一是延續中古時期以來確立的聖山地位，一是成為邊防後備的重要據點。雙重角色使得五臺山受到的關注與重視，除了信仰功能之外，更增加實質的防邊功能。於此階段，五臺山的聖山地位雖已成定論，然聖山信仰與五臺山佛教的發展，卻無法不受到政治社會變動的影響。 中古時期逐漸形成的五臺山聖山信仰，至宋以下，逐漸影響其他佛教聖山的出現。中古時期五臺山聖山信仰的形成，最重要的意義在於開啟中國佛教傳播與信仰的新面向。「聖山」不同於容納多寺的名山或宗派本山，整個區域被視為一體，成為信仰的根據與信仰實踐的載體。在五臺山聖山信仰中，文殊菩薩是信仰的對象，與文殊菩薩化現相關的諸多聖跡是信仰傳播的輔助媒介，五臺山寺院與僧人是聖山信仰發展的基礎，入山巡禮則成為聖山信仰最具特色的信仰表現。而清涼傳的撰成，可謂此一信仰的輔教之書。 據筆者所論，中古時期五臺山文殊信仰的發展，或許能在前人對於佛菩薩信仰的討論之外，另闢蹊徑。特別是有別於其他信仰方式的巡禮活動，在原始佛教的聖跡巡禮與中國山岳信仰傳統之間的承續與創新。在五臺山聖山地位確立之後，其他人間菩薩道場逐一興起，開展出佛教典籍所述之外的信仰方式，特別是極樂淨土與人間道場的比附與相應。就中，或可為觀察中古時期佛教發展與政治社會關係的另一課題與面向。
Wu Tai Shan was named the best spiritual place for worship since not later than Northern Dynasties due to its natural environment. In Northern Dynasties, Wu Tai Shan had become an regional religion centre. Many monks visited it to worship; most of them worshiped dhūta, it showed that worship was popular in the period. However, there were not only Buddhism but also celestial legend existing in Wu Tai Shan at the time, it reveals that the phenomenon that both Buddhism and celestial brief existed and developed are also found in Wu Tai Shan. Although Wu Tai Shan was compared with so called Mañjuśrī’s Sacred Sites, which was mentioned in Avatamsaka Sutra, it developed its Buddhism uniquely without being influenced by Manjusri’s Sacred Sites at the time. Wu Tai Shan was noticed and supported by authority due to the religious policies at the beginning of Tang Dynasty. With the trend of the development, Wu Tai Shan was associated with the Mañjuśrī’s Sacred Sites named in avatamsaka sutra; this also became a link of facilitating the brief of avatamsaka sutra. By the support of Wu Zetian, the association between Wu Tai Shan and Mañjuśrī’s Sacred Sites was admitted and supported by the Emperor. Hence, the development of Wu Tai Shan started to be associated with a statement, which Wu Tai Shan was the Sacred Sites of Bodhisattva Manjusri in the world of mortals. Nevertheless, it can be clearly seen that Wu Tai Shan was in the initial stage of flourish from the activities of temples and monks in Wu Tai Shan. Both the scale of temples and activities of monks illustrate that the development of Wu Tai Shan was not particularly flourishing in the period between the surrender of Northern Dynasties and raised attention of Wu Zetian. At that time, it simply concentrated on cooperating with aranya and Cave Temp, which were established to worship dhūta. During the dynasties of the T''ang Emperors Hsuean-tsug and Tai- tsug, due to the influence generated by promoting the Esoteric Buddhism of protecting the kingdom by emperors, Manjusri’s Sacred Sites in Wu Tai Shan transformed its role from Bodhisattva Manjusri, an important role in Esoteric Buddhism, to an objective respected by the Emperor. During the rule of Wu-chou, Bodhisattva Manjusri Sacred Sites was confirmed as a core value of Wu Tai Shan. Later, Wu Tai Shan obtained great support from the Emperor and became a part in the development of Esoteric Buddhism. Although Wu Tai Shan obtained attention by Esoteric Buddhism Manjusri brief, its development of Buddhism did not thoroughly transfer to the principle of Esoteric Buddhism. Beside Chin-gé Temple built by the T''ang Emperor Tai- tsug, other temples also strongly developed in this stage. In addition, various myths happened in Wu Tai Shan matched up the classic image of Bodhisattva Manjusri that he likes to wisely impel and reform people by incarnation. The demands including bagging a meeting with Manjusri to obtain wisdom, entering the temple to learn preach from Bodhisattva in person and even accepting cultivation from Bodhisattva to make Buddhist practice upgrade etc. all made pilgrimage become the most important activity of worship for Wu Tai Shan belief. With the increasing number of pilgrims, Wu Tai Shan acquired more support, including that temples and monks obtained supply and the number of eminent monks who intended to settle down in Wu Tai Shan to worship was growing. As a result, the formation of Buddhism in Wu Tai Shan became greater; it did not merely possess promotion centers of Buddhism and famous monks, who was willing to stay and preach, but also much material support by followers. As a result, Wu Tai Shan was flourishing by Bodhisattva Manjusri’s Sacred Sites; meanwhile, became a key role of promoting Buddhism. From the period between T''ang Emperor De-tsug to Wun- tsug, it can be called the heyday of religion in Wu Tai Shan since the nature changed and the development was completed. At that time, Wu Tai Shan had been the Sacred Sites of Sacred Mountain, which was respected by Buddhist followers. It was influential and significant. As a result, the Emperor and the authority continuingly supported to develop it; they made it the national prayer Sacred Sites. Moreover, they also built a national chancel there to make it the place where monks from everywhere in the country could take precepts and stay. It possessed a grand position in Buddhism. Beside the position of Wu Tai Shan which was emphasized by the authority through legislation, it is where Bodhisattva incarnated, was another motivation to attract more believers to visit. The Pu-tong-yuan（普通院）, which located on the way to Wu Tai Shan and between every mountain, were the places where pilgrims could stay and rest. This situation reveals that the popularity of visiting Wu Tai Shan; numerous pilgrims brought up the demand of setting up the places. In the stage, the scale of the temples was great; the system of monk organizations was mature. Therefore, the authority had to organize a special rule and system to manage monks particularly for Wu Tai Shan. However, the Emperor and authority’s respect and dependant also made Wu Tai Shan become the target of policy execution in Huichang Persecution of Buddhism and hence suffered serious destroy. After the dynasty of the T''ang Emperor Wu-tsug, although Syuan-tsug strongly supported to rebuild the Buddhism in Wu Tai Shan, the development of it had declined at the time due to the decay of emperor’s power in late T''ang dynasty and the disorder of the politic and community. Nevertheless, the built religion of the Sacred Mountain did not disappear for this reason. Comparing with Middle Period（關中）, Hebei area（河北） and the South area of the Changjiang River（江南）, where the political situation was rebellious, the North of Shanxi（山西）, where Wu Tai Shan was located, was relatively stable. Furthermore, the Buddhist community admitted the position of the Sacred Sites in the Sacred Mountain. As a result, Wu Tai Shan became the only existing Buddhist centre in the North during the rule of the late Tang and Five Dynasties。This situation can be inferred from the stable inheritance of the master monk in Wu Tai Shan. At the beginning of Northern Song Dynasty, although the government of Song governed the entire country, there was still the Liao Dynasty against it in the North. Wu Tai Shan was in the North of Shanxi（山西） and became the boundary between Song and Liao. Due to the position of political strategy, Wu Tai Shan played double roles. One was the Sacred Mountain convinced since medieval China; one was the important point of frontier defenses. These two roles brought Wu Tai Shan much attention. It possessed not only religion but also the function of defense. In this stage, the position of Wu Tai Shan had been established firmly; however, the religion of the Sacred Mountain and the development of Buddhism in Wu Tai Shan could not avoid the influence caused by political and social changes. he religion of Wu Tai Shan, which developed since medieval China, increasingly affected the appearances of other sacred mountains. The most important meaning of the religious development in Wu Ti Shan during medieval China was to start promoting Chinese Buddhism and to point out a new direction of religion. The Sacred Mountain, was different from those who contained many temples or who possessed its own faction, was seen a unity and became the carrier of religious resource and execution. In the religion of Wu Tai Shan, Bodhisattva Manjusri was the target of the brief. The myths relative to the incarnation of Bodhisattva Manjusri were the media of promoting the religion; the temples and monks in Wu Tai Shan were the foundation of developing the religion in the Sacred Mountain, and pilgrimage was the most characteristic representation of the religion. The edition of Qingliang-zhuan（清涼傳） can be called the references of the religion. According to the author’s research, the development of Manjusri religion in Wu Tai Shan during medieval China could probably be researched deeply beyond the previous discussion about Bodhisattva. Especially for those religious activities different from other religions, which related to the inheritance and innovation between the pilgrimage of original Buddhism and traditional brief in Chinese mountain. After the position of Wu Tai Shan convinced, other Sacred Sites of Bodhisattva in the world of mortals started growing and developing other briefs different from what Buddhist records mentioned, especially those briefs related to Pure Land and the Sacred Sites in the world of mortals. In the research process, it could be another issue and direction to observe the relationship between Buddhist development and politic and society.
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