The Historical Memories in Tang China
|關鍵字:||歷史記憶;文化記憶;黃金古代;先代帝王;儒學復興;在地性;historical memory;cultural memory;past Golden Age;Confucian revival movement;Tang dynasty||公開日期:||2009||摘要:|| 這篇論文從許多不同的面相探討唐代的歷史記憶，其中有兩個主要的研究取徑：首先，從唐代的政治論述考察歷史記憶的運用；其次，從地域的視野考察在地與異邦的文化知識，以及文化知識的生產與流通。這兩個取徑分別主導這篇論文的上卷和下卷。 在論文的上卷，第一章考察「黃金古代」這個觀念在唐初政治論述的角色。「黃金古代」是中國政治思想與歷史觀的重要觀念，但常被視為「迷思」。本章嘗試去說明唐代人如何以理智的態度接受這個觀念。尤其是皇帝，他如何接受這個觀念，以及為自己的統治賦予歷史的定位。第二章考察「近現當代」在唐人的歷史記憶中的地位與作用。「近現當代」的範圍隨時間而移動，除了唐初之外，唐代的「近現當代」其實就是逐漸累積的本朝史——「唐朝史」。本章嘗試呈現「近現當代」的歷史記憶在唐人思想意識中的重要性。第三章考察北魏到宋初朝廷祭祀先代帝王的活動，保護先代帝王陵墓的措施。先代帝王的祭祀，除了構成歷代王朝的系譜之外，有趣的一點是祭祀地點的變更。本章考察中古時期祭祀先代帝王的地點屢次變更背後的時代脈絡。第四章考察唐代士大夫對「漢朝」的理解、評價與借鑑。首先，漢朝在官僚組織上的前例，有助於唐代士大夫去思考唐朝本身的行政改革。另外，中唐的儒學復興是個廣泛的思想變化，本章考察這個思想潮流中的成員如何正面評價漢代的統治、其官員的風範，以及文學的成就。本章嘗試論證唐代士大夫對於漢代歷史上的人事物，感到熟悉與類同。以上四章的討論雖然偏重思想與觀念，但都非常注重時代背景與思想的情勢。第一、二章都注意到唐人的時代觀與歷史觀的交互作用。第二、四章分別探討「近現當代」和「漢代」的歷史記憶，則是希望補充「黃金古代」之外的歷史記憶。在這四章中也注意不同的身份與歷史記憶的關係，包括皇帝、士大夫、武人等等。 在論文的下卷，第五章以唐代前期的河南道為例，呈現一個中原地區對腳下土地的歷史記憶。對鄉邦的自豪是地方歷史記憶的原動力，至於記憶的範圍則偏重在漢代的人事物。在他們生活的空間中，充滿了歷史的符碼，提醒著這是一塊歷史悠久的土地。第六章則以唐代前期中原地區的士人與江南地域的關係，討論中原士人對異邦的歷史記憶，其中涉及官員宦遊、士人的旅遊、南方文化以及旅遊見聞與讀者的關係。第七章則論證中古歷史記憶如何從封閉的在地性走向流通，同時以唐代後期的江南為範圍，呈現地方文化記憶的創造與發展。這三章共通的觀點是地域關係和地方文化，關注歷史記憶的在地性、流通性，以及「他者」所扮演的角色。相較於上卷前四章多以朝廷君臣與士大夫的言論和思想為對象，這三章多以活躍於地方上的官員、耆老、在地與流動的文人為研究對象，考察他們如何活絡地方的文化活動。簡言之，地方官員興建亭台、舉行遊宴，佈置一個文化活動的舞台；文人則扮演重要的角色，追溯歷史故事和生產文化記憶；地方人士則共襄勝舉，參與其中。
This dissertation researches on the historical memories in Tang China from different angles, and two main research approaches are adopted. One is to examine the historical memories in Tang dynasty''s political discourses. The other is to study the cultural knowledge in Tang and its production and circulation from the regional perspective.he first chapter researchs how the idea of past Golden Age was accepted and put into practice in the political discourses in early Tang. The past Golden Age is an important idea in traditional China’s political and historical thoughts, but often regarded as a “myth”. This chapter deals with how the literati deliberated this idea and how emperors accepted and intentionally correlated it with their own rule. The second chapter studies the roles and functions of “Recent History” in the historical memories of Tang dynasty. Since the span of “Recent History” moves forward with time, besides in early Tang, the “Recent History” of Tang Dynasty means the accumulative history of Tang dynasty itself. This chapter emphasizes the importance of “Recent History” in Tang’s opinion climate. The third chapter studies how the imperial governments from North Wei(北魏) to early Song(宋初) worshiped former emperors in the past and protected their mausoleums. In addition to the construction of a genealogy of dynasties in the past, the worship of former emperors in the past had one thing interesting: the locations of worship varied several times. This chapter analysed the background of this phenomenon. The forth chapter deals with how the literati understood, estimated the history of Han dynasty and took it as a good example. The historical precedents of Han dynasty’s bureaucracy stimulated the literati in Tang to reform their government. In addition, the Confucian revival movement in mid-Tang was an important trend. This chapter research into how members of this trend praised the rule of Han dynasty, its officer’s administration and its literary achievements. This chapter demonstrates that the literati in Tang felt familiar with their counterparts in Han and found some similarities between Tang and Han. The preceding four chapters put emphasis on the concepts of historical memories, but also pay attention to the background of it. Not only the idea of past Golden Age, recent historical memories and historical knowledge of Han dynasty also played important roles in Tang. The relation between historical memories and identity, including emperors, literartes, and military officers, is also discussed in these chapters.he fifth chapter studies how the people lived around Yellow River downstream regarded their homeland’s history. For the people lived there, their historical memories concentrated on the people and events of Han dynasty and their local pride was the driving force of bringing back historical memories. In the locality they lived, many things, such as a mountain, a river, a tome, or a stone with inscription, etc., all could be linked with history and therefore formed the codes of history. These symbols reminded inhabitants that their homeland had a glorious past. In contrast to the fifth chapter, the sixth chapter focuses on the historical memories of the people lived around Yellow River downstream for a foreign land, Yangtze valley, the land once ruled by Six Dynasty and now a territory of Tang dynasty. The historical understanding for a foreign land is not only obtained by reading books, but also by traveling. So how the people lived in the north traveled to the south is the subject of this chapter. Besides the south’s attractiveness to the traveler, how traveler reported their experiences and how the people stayed in the north imagined the south are all discussed. The seventh chapter demonstrates how the historical memories in medieval China transformed from isolation to circulation. This chapter also describes the development of the local culture of Yangtze valley in mid-Tang. How the local culture developed in mid-Tang and how cultural information circulated between different localities, are important issues in the later three chapters. In contrast to the preceding four chapters emphasizing the discourses and thoughts of emperors and the literati, the later three chapters research into how local officials, local elders, and the literati participated in the local culture. In brief, local officials built pavilions, holding feast, and setting the stage for culture activities. The literati played an important role by recording the event, citing the historical fact and producing culture memories. The indigenous inhabitants took part in and enjoyed it.
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