Aborigine Military Colonies System in Qing Taiwan: A Case Study of Tungshih in Central Taiwan (1784-1825)
|關鍵字:||番屯;界外私墾;東勢角;何福興;屯租;養贍埔地;aborigine military colony;unlicensed cultivation beyond boundary;Tungshihjiao(東勢角);He Fu-xing(何福興);colony rent;colony land||公開日期:||2012||摘要:||乾隆五十三年（1788）林爽文事件結束後，清朝政府為了改革軍事上的疏漏，決定在臺施行番屯制度，從九十三社熟番中挑選四千人編成屯丁，並分撥界外荒埔作為養贍埔地，藉此鞏固臺灣邊區的社會秩序。這套制度除了預期軍事方面的效用，同時也是為了解決乾隆三十年代以來界外私墾的問題。因此，番屯制度影響的範圍不只熟番而已，界外地區的漢人、生番也受到衝擊。我們希望藉由番屯制度作為切入點，並以臺中東勢地區為中心，觀察乾隆晚期至道光初年臺灣界外社會的樣貌，以及制度推行後對當地社會造成的影響。
After the Lin Shuang-wen incident was pacified in 1788, the aborigine military colonies system was introduced to Taiwan by the Qing government, in order to strengthen the peace and order of this overseas frontier. This system involved selecting 4,000 aborigine military colonists (t''un tin 屯丁) from 93 civilized aborigine (shu fan 熟番) tribes, to whom the land beyond boundary was given to cultivate. In addition to military functions, the system also served to solve the unlicensed cultivation beyond boundary, which had widely emerged since 1765. Therefore, the system affected not only the civilized aborigines, but also raw aborigines (sheng fan 生番) and the Chinese (漢人). In this thesis, in order to investigate the effects of implementing the aborigine military colonies system on a society beyond boundary, I will take Tungshih(東勢) region in central Taiwan, from 1784 to 1820, as my major case for discussion. Most research on the aborigine military colonies system has focused on the content of official legislation. I, however, intend to shift from legal words to social realities by concentrating on another two aspects: the formation of legislation and the actual condition of operation, especially how the system was refashioned by local society. The legislation of the system was originally inspired by the experience of Sicuan (四川); however, a different version, which better suited to the situation in Taiwan, was approved by the officials. In this process, diverse concerns of this policy were voiced: while the officials held divergent opinions, the local groups also negotiated for their own benefits. Finally, the legislation reached a compromise between different groups, and took into account both the expectations of central government and the benefits of local society. The operation of the system, on the other hand, can also expand our views on the workings of other systems in the Qing dynasty. Although the legislation was issued in 1790, the system did not function in the ways which it was instructed in the articles. In fact, the system was adjusted to fulfilling the practical need and to sustaining the profits of local society. In later reforms of the system, the adjustments made by local people were usually confirmed by the officials. This does not mean, however, that the system malfunctioned: it was still a norm which people could manipulate but not violate. For the local people, the goal was to ensure their expectable profit in the cultivation by circumventing the restriction of the original legislation. For officials, the goal was to maintain the peace and stability of Taiwan society rather than enforce the legislation literally. In conclusion, the implementation of a system should not be simply viewed as “government command, people obey,” but a dynamic process of finding the equilibrium of bilateral goals.
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