The Governance of Country and Frontier Society: An investigation of Chin Kuang Fu organization and Kuang Tai Cheng organization in Northern and Central Taiwan from 1834 to 1920.
|關鍵字:||金廣福墾號;廣泰成墾號;邊區;邊陲;Chin Kuang Fu organization;Kuang Tai Cheng organization organization;Frontier;Border region||公開日期:||2011||摘要:||自臺灣收歸版圖，清政權在中央財政乏力中展開對臺灣的治理，從康熙六十一年(1722)制定番界，執行過程顯示清朝的臺灣邊疆政策未能遏止漢人越界侵墾，以致邊陲衝突不斷。清代做為漢人和原住民區隔的「界」，經過不時清釐或重定，成為土地拓墾和國家版圖擴張的前線，並不斷往內山推移，逐漸形成漢人為主體，進行土地拓墾的邊區社會。本文在清代臺灣以界做為人群區隔的邊疆治理基礎下，由道光十四年(1834)官方諭令籌組金廣福墾號，實施較為積極的隘防行政為始，採取金廣福到廣泰成墾號不同時期作用於新竹、苗栗地區的官民合作拓墾組織，做跨區域、貫時的分析和比較。
After taking over Taiwan , Qing regime launched its governance of Taiwan with poor central government financial resources. The aboriginal boundary between aborigines and Han settlers was drawn in 1722 (Kangxi 61st Year). The whole process indicated that the border policy of Qing regime in Taiwan was in vain and there were numerous conflicts between aborigines and Han immigrants. The aboriginal boundaries were set and reset from time to time in Qing dynasty. The boundaries represented the front lines of waste land development and the country. They also continuously moved forward to inner mountains. A frontier society that was dominated and controlled by Han Chinese was formed to develop the wasteland. Taking Chin Kuang Fu organization and Kuang Tai Cheng organization in Hsinchu and Miaoli as main focus, this dissertation aims at conducting a longitudinal and cross-regional analysis and comparison of organizations during different periods of time in Qing dynasty from 1834 to 1920. Based upon methods of prohibition, partition, and separation, population separation in border regions of Taiwan was applied gradually from a loose population separation to a solid separation that was controlled by armed forces. Such separation served as a final protective line for the Qing regime in order to strength its governance, constrain activities in Han people, and manager the relationships between aborigines and Han immigrants. Furthermore, in the processes of paddy field in the border regions of Taiwan , the governance of Qing regime was achieved by enhanced participation of local agencies and by collaborations between government and organizations. Because of global marketing and economic interests, the aboriginal regions were forced to open later. Qing regime gradually started to collaborate with those organizations in the border regions of Taiwan . The policy of separation in the 18th century went away in the 19th century. The control of border regions relied on the assistance from the border regions. In mountainous regions, profits of camphor were the main purpose of waste land development. In order to make some profit and achieve governance, the establishments of Chin Kuang Fu organization and Kuang Tai Cheng organization in late Qing dynasty served as a platform between government and local agencies. In the case of Chin Kuang Fu organization, the majority was Hakka settlers and those settlers that were from the same ancestral home as their leaders were more favorable. In contrast, in the case of Kuang Tai Cheng organization, such regional identity was not that obvious except in the Zhuolan area. They were united under Hakka identity and incorporated with each other through waste land development. These were characteristics of frontier society in the border regions. The impact of leaders and resources development may bring new insights into the development of Hakka community in the mountainous regions of Taiwan .
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