The Pre-Qin Philosophers’ Religious Consciousness and the Categories of Socio-moral Doctrine
|關鍵字:||先秦諸子;德;禮;道法;仁;性善;聖人;The Pre-Qin Philosophers;De;Li;Dao Fa;Ren;Xing Shan;Sheng Ren||公開日期:||2010||摘要:||論文提要
Summary The subject of this thesis is “The Pre-Qin Philosophers’ Religious Consciousness and the Categories of Socio-moral Doctrine”. The appearance of the pre-Qin philosophers were a very important historical phenomenon of the Chinese Ancient Period. Its outbreak of new thoughts might possibly represent the important reformation of that time. The core of the cultural body was the traditional religion. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is the discussion of the reformed thoughts of the pre-Qin philosophers, whether, were it based upon the great change of religious consciousness in the deep hearts of human beings? In other words, the pre-Qin period inherited religious beliefs of Zhou Dynasty. Its spirits and meanings developed the change of quality. Even it was declining. Some thinkers of that time tried to repair, rebuild, or substitute the traditional beliefs which acted as the whole cultural core. Thus, it also stimulated the pre-Qin philosophers to be the spirited power of development of each individual system of thinking. The contents of this thesis are divided into four chapters: The major description of the first chapter: The political and educational traditions of Zhou Dynasty based on Tian Ming, De, and Li as three core concepts. Among them, the concept of Tian Ming was the base of religious consciousness for the people of Zhou Dynasty, and it was related to the concept of De. Both concepts constructed human knowledge and reasonable philosophy of religion; but, traditional Shamanism formed conflicts and controls from time to time. Finally, the Shan Dao She Jian, where the will of god was being used to teaching people, appeared. The concept of Li grew stronger in the political character of pre-Qin period, passing the special space celebrating ceremony of the internal definition, combined with the concept of De, became the creation of kings’ enlightened order, pattern and whole cultural symbol. The major description of the second chapter: Certain kinds of thinking that were anti-political and anti-religious traditions of Zhou Dynasty, appeared in the pre-Qin period, including Lao Zi’s thinking of anti-civilization, retreat and attitude of avoiding troubles, as well as Sun Zi’s philosophy of competition. Both indicated that the special character of the thinking of the opposite direction, and connected with the practical thoughts of emphatic material advantage, which rose from the society of that time, finally led to the birth of Fa Jia’s thinking of military power and utilitarianism. The new national system of totalitarian was established. It also totally overthrew the fundamental value of the political and educational traditions of Zhou Dynasty. The major description of the third chapter: Muo Zi’s and Zhuang Zi’s points of view towards the civilization of human being were entirely different. Muo Zi emphasized that the difference of the social value should be eliminated by using the belief of ghost and god, then improving the concentrative power of the undivided human group, but, because its religious points of view were established on the foundation of utilitarianism and lack of enthusiasm of mythical color. Its influence was finally ended. Zhuang Zi had a tremendous tendency to keeping a distance from the society and he originally did not have intension for establishing any religious traditions, but, his romantic, elegant and obscure literary description, which contained the imaginational space of mythic color and mysticism. Therefore, it opened other religious traditions, and became the spiritual resource of Taoism at later days. The major description of the fourth chapter: In order to protect Zhou Dynasty’s standing position of political and educational traditions. Pre-Qin Ru Jia, Confucian School, strongly defended the educated efforts of “De” and “Li” towards human society and re-interpreted the above concept, and from various way to re-build the belief of basic value. For example, Confucius promoted the concept of Ren. Mencius emphasized the good nature of human being-Theory of Xing Shan. Its aim was to fill the spiritual internal definition and meaning with the traditions of “De” and “Li”, and making it to re-start the grouping of the living power for the social belief. Xun Zi tried to explain the concept of “Li” from the angle of utilitarianism. He considered “Li” as “Sheng Ren”, who could create the system of ideal civilization for all human being, and helped people to overcome the nature of selfishness and desire. The purpose of Xun Zi’s teaching actually hoped that kings’ and lords’ capacities acted as Sheng Ren, became leaders, and united the beliefs of all the opposite parties for the social value.
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