The Fire, Fire Control and Social Life in Urban Hangzhou before Mid-Qing (1644-1861)
|關鍵字:||清代;杭州;火災;火政;社會生活;Qing dynasty;Hangzhou;fire accident;fire control;social life||公開日期:||2011||摘要:||本文的研究課題是清初至太平軍攻陷前(1861年)杭州城的城市火災。除了探討杭州何以火災頻繁外，並藉官府與民間在火災上的各種應對，考察清代中國城市管理以及城市生活。
This article analyzes the fire accident of Hangzhou city before Taiping army occupied (1861). In addition to discuss why fire accident takes place so frequently in Hangzhou, the article also investigates the various response by Officials and people to the fire, to observe the urban management and urban life in Qing Dynasty. The paper is divided into five chapters. Chapter1 analyzes the reason for why Qing central government improved their fire control policy, as well as the various situation of execution by local governments. Chapter2 talks about the general situation of Hangzhou city’s fire, causes and spatial and temporal characteristics. This chapter discusses Hangzhou''s industrial and commercial development at first, and then makes a quantitative statistics to analyze the trend of Hangzhou’s fire in time and space distribution, to explore the relationship between fire and Hangzhou environment. Chapter3 discusses the fire control of the Hangzhou administration, from fire prevention to after-fire compensation and other policies, and observing the interaction between the central government and Hangzhou authorities through it. Chapter4 discusses the daily fire prevention methods of the local residents at first, followed by analyzes the architectural features and the correlation with the fire. This chapter also puts emphasis on the civil fire fighting organization. At the end of this chapter shows how to reduce the influence of fire accident between official and the public when it happened. Chapter5 analyzes Hangzhou residents how to recognize and treat the phenomenon of frequent fire accidents through people’s discuss of the fire, the local religion, and other aspects such as feng-shui of this city. The various social phenomena actually are local residents in Hangzhou’s reaction when realize frequent fire accidents, this chapter attempts to analyze and present through the process of common people try to understand fire and to know how to evades the disaster that produced each kind of folklore and complex interaction between officials and people.
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