The Kominka Movement in Taiwanese Villages:Social Education Organizations in Villages of Takao Prefecture
This thesis discusses about the establishment of the social education organizations in villages (a.k.a. hamlets/burakus) of Takao Prefecture (高雄州), and how they worked since 1930s. The analysis of these organizations is mainly based on official documents, and the diary of Lu, Ji-Ying (陸季盈), a participant of these organizations. The research is done with both internal and extarnal perspectives. This thesis is divided into five chapters. The first chapter analyzes a policy called the Baojia System (保甲制, a.k.a. hokô system), and the organizations such as the temples and the Common Bed-For-Rice-Plants Teams (共同苗代組合) in villages of Takao Prefecture before 1936. The Baojia System was a security system for villages, establishing Bao as the base unit of a village. The temples were the centers of villages, and were managed by the registration and licensing system of the government. The Common Bed-For-Rice-Plants Association had been established by the Takao Prefecture government based on Bao in order to promote agricultural development in villages since 1910s. The second chapter analyzes the situation of social education in Takao Prefecture -- the official Kachokai(家長會) and Kokugo Fukyukai (國語普及會)/Kokugo Koshujo (國語講習所). Before 1931, the government had minor concerns about the Kokugo Fukyu movement. However, it started to actively propagating the movement after 1933 via establishing Kokugo Koshujo islandwide. The third chapter then discusses the processes of the establishment of the social education organizations in Takao Prefecture. Common schools (公學校) became the main unit of Youth Corps (青年團, a.k.a. Seinendan) from 1930 to 1938, and sub-corps (分團) of villages was established due to the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese war and the social education movement since 1930s, in order to strengthen relationship between the corps and the villages. We also analyze of Lu, Ji-Ying''s diary for his discussions about the function of Seinendan. The Youth Corps were established not only for the war mobilization, but also for increasing possibilities to develop personal achievements for citizens, which was more appealing to members of Seinendan. This is one critical reason why the flexible fascist organizations would even exist. The fourth chapter discusses the establishment and operation of social education organizations in villages in aspects of their systems and operations. First of all, we introduce how the social education movement in Japan is connected with Taiwan, and how the social education organizations of villages were established in Taiwan since 1930s. The Takao Prefecture government established AITs (Agriculture Implementation Teams, 農事實行組合) in villages, which hold both industrial and education functions, and established RCNAs (Revitalizing National Customs Associations, 民風作興會) for domination purposes. Second, we discuss the characteristics of the AIT in organizational and functional aspects. The AIT was initially assigned the tasks of industrial and social education. As the war continued, the AIT was given more tasks, and the staff gradually gained more power in villages. We also analyze the social classes of the AIT affiliates, and conclude that the organizations were mostly dominated by upper farmers and landowners. Last but not least, we discuss about the policies of the Takao Prefecture government of transferring the temples'' properties to the AITs, in order to have better control of villages as the Sino-Japanese War continued. We also talk about the reactions of Taiwanese people to these policies. The fifth chapter discusses the operations of RNCA and AIT, and the impacts of the ISPS (Imperial Subjects for Patriotic Services, 皇民奉公會), utilizing materials investigated from Lu, Ji-Ying''s diary. Several key points were found based on our investigation -- First of all, while AITs implemented agricultural and social education business, these actions were all guided by RNCA of each town. The RNCA and AIT of each town were both operating under the domination of the county''s RNCA. Second, although the government propagated new policies of Japanese language acquisition, the villagers'' incentive of language learning remains low. In the end, we discuss about the fact and the problems about the concurrence of Baojia, the Hamlet Association (部落會), and the AIT within villages.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。