Where is Juyan? ——The Development of the Administration of the Hexi Region during the Han Dynasty as Seen in the Construction of Juyan City
Ever since the 1930 Swedish-Chinese joint scientific expedition to the northwestern provinces of China surveyed various archeological sites along the Ejina River (called the Ruo River in ancient times), determining location of the Han Dynasty city of Juyan has been very contentious. The Hanshu Dilizhi records that the capital of Du-wei was in Juyan county town, but Juyan’s Han Dynasty wooden and bamboo Slips indicate a different location. Previously, scholars have marked the site of Juyan City according to ancient literature, excavated material and information from archeological sites. Nevertheless, they not only drew different conclusions from the same slip texts, but also did not reach a consensus on relationships between Juyan City, Juyan county town, and the capital of Du-wei. This paper attempts to use a dynamic perspective to explore the history of the Han Dynasty’s development in the Hexi region. It will use this history as a basis for explaining the conflicts between the slip texts and ancient literatures as well as the internal contradictions contained in the slip texts themselves. The first chapter reanalyses the bamboo and wooden slip texts in order to differentiate them by kind. The second chapter investigates the time when Zhangyi was established and discusses the expansion of the overall Hexi region in order to comprehend the development of the administration of the Juyan region. The third chapter then discusses the diverse meanings of “Juyan,” the moving location of the place name “Juyan” and the changing scope of the region called “Juyan,” as well as the development of the administration of “Juyan.” The fourth chapter explains the changes to the Juyan region with regard to the administrative division of the Hexi region during the Han Dynasty and discusses the transition from “Juyan Du-wei District” to “Zhangyi Juyan County.” It then details, the history of Du-wei and its capital, the multiple meanings of “city,” the control of Ruo River watercourse and other topics. Finally, I will summarize the above points of discussion, and using the Juyan region as an example, indicate the particular characteristics of the “Du-wei District” in the early expansion of the Han frontier. The results of the study reveal the different stages of the process of development in the Hexi region during the Han Dynasty and indicate that the external expansion of the Han Dynasty was carried out in stages.
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