Shidetang Xiyou Ji and the Syncretic Movement in the Late Ming
|關鍵字:||世德堂本;《西遊記》;宗教折衷運動;三教;詮釋學;Shidetang Edition;Xiyou Ji;Journey to the West;The syncretic movement;Three teachings;Hermeneutics||公開日期:||2016||摘要:||本論文關注明代世德堂本《西遊記》（下稱世本）與晚明多元宗教情境的關係，將當時各宗教間的競合視為涉及晚明思想、社會與文化諸層面的「宗教折衷運動」，並嘗試置放世本於此一運動中加以理解。本文從《西遊記》與明代心學有著密切關係的論點出發，重新檢視所謂「明代心學」的意義。藉著爬梳中晚明具有折衷傾向的儒者對於佛、道論述的變化，發現晚明儒者在面對做為他者的佛道時，對於「什麼是儒學」也不斷地進行探問，甚而有脫離儒學的追求。但這個儒學主體逐漸遺散、動搖的過程，正顯示中晚明儒者在逐漸接納佛、道時，如何開創出更為多元的儒學主體性。 其次，本文進一步說明，世本雖少有直接論及儒學的內容，然藉著分析世本作者對宇宙創生的構想、對心一元論的看法、對人倫秩序的重視，以及其所透露的語言觀，仍然顯示世本作者有意識地以不同於精英論述的「文法」參與晚明儒學的變動。此外，本文也進一步考慮世本如何突破嚴格哲理論述的視野極限，具體地回應晚明儒學面對佛、道所帶來的主體遺散情境。 第三，藉由世本對於名實問題的考慮、道教元素的佈置，以及《心經》的詮釋，試圖探索世本中的三教關係。在此過程可見世本對於「詮釋」的高度關注，就像一個能夠自由組織的遊戲盒，讀者儘可以在其中得到自己想要的詮釋，卻也始終需要對自己的詮釋保持懷疑。因此在晚明宗教折衷運動的脈絡下，本文歷史性地重新理解世本的結果，發現世本作者對三教論述的「詮釋」課題有著相當程度的反思性，顯現此一晚明著作的特色。最後，本文嘗試指出世本《西遊記》中的「遊」可能具有的詮釋學意義。
This thesis focuses on the relation between Shidetang Xiyou Ji and the religious landscape in the Late Ming. Religions in the Late Ming were characteristically syncretic; their syncretism was prevalent not only in the intellectual milieu but also in the cultural atmosphere of the period. An attempt to put Xiyou Ji in this religious context is significant as to understand its historical meaning. The main argument of this thesis is in three parts. It begins with a careful reconstruction of the close connection between Xiyou Ji and the philosophy of the Mind (xin xue). I argue that such connection can only be fully appreciated when one delineates the meaning of the philosophy of the Mind in the Late Ming. This delineation is carried out by reexamining the change of the way in which the Confucians from the Mid to the Late Ming articulated Buddhism and Daoism. The examination gives rise to the argument that when these Confucians characterized Buddhism and Daoism as the intellectual counterparts of Confucianism, they were constantly led to inquire into the nature of Confucianism; some of them even attempted to escape from being alluded to the label of Confucianism. This by no means indicates that the pillars of Confucianism were shaken. On the contrary, it should be taken as a course in which the Confucians incorporated the syncretism in conceiving their multi-subjectivity. The second part of the argument emerges from this context. Although Xiyou Ji seldom addresses the content of Confucianism explicitly, an analysis of its description of the genesis of cosmos and the idea of the Mind, as well as its plots about the Confucian ethics and its concept of language, reveals that the author of Xiyou Ji consciously participated in the transformation of Confucianism in a distinct style and genre that has to be distanced from the strict intellectual discourse. Moreover, this part also inquires the possibility for one to contemplate the way in which Xiyou Ji might have reacted to the reality in which the Confucians live. In the third part, I probe the relation between the three teachings in Xiyou Ji through analyzing the plots about “name and reality”, the deployment of the Daoist elements, and its interpretation of The Heart Sutra. I argue that Shidetang Xiyou Ji is highly concerned with the problem of hermeneutics in these three teachings. It brings to mind a sandbox game in which readers can freely play with the elements of the three teachings and acquire different meanings in this play. But readers are not autonomous sovereigns, as the text also poses questions for readers to ceaselessly reflect on what they have grasped in the course of play. In this sense, reading Shidetang Xiyou Ji in the context of syncretic movement renders that Xiyou Ji can be seen as a book that meticulously reflects on the core issue of hermeneutics in the Late Ming. This in turn leads to the last, but by no means the least point. This thesis underlines the hermeneutic meaning of “play(遊)” in Shidetang Xiyou Ji.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。