The Governance Institution in Ordos Loop from Sui to Early Tang (581-649)
|關鍵字:||河套;交通網絡;治理制度;部落聯盟;羈縻府州;邊防政策;邊疆意識;Ordos Loop;Traffic Network;Governance Institution;Tribal Alliance;Jimi System;Frontier Policy;Frontier consciousness||公開日期:||2016||摘要:||本研究從制度運作的「問題與回應」，以及中國如何治理邊疆地區的兩個關懷側面切入，並以河套地區為個案討論。筆者試圖透過對河套的歷史地理與治理制度的細緻討論，分析中國如何看待邊疆，並依此概念設計、改革邊疆的地方制度，以及安置不同生活型態的遊牧部落，以此穩定邊疆秩序。 「地理環境與網絡」一章分析「夏州－勝州」、「靈州－豐州」四個城市節點與兩條交通線，說明於隋到唐初期，河套地區的政治重心從東側的勝州轉移至西側的靈州。「夏州－勝州」的道路可北至白道，為隋初與突厥交戰的主要地區，此道並與河東的通道，並為兩大主要連通中國與遊牧部族的交通線。隋煬帝於大業三年北巡後，勝州便作為北疆的政治中心。貞觀末年，唐因應漠北鐵勒所請，建構「通回紇大道」，自此「靈州－豐州」交通線興起，靈州並得以取代勝州，成為新的北疆政治中心。 「治理制度的變化與邊疆意識」一章，透過貞觀年間對頡利可汗內附部落安置問題的討論，指出當時朝廷對於部落安置主要關懷安置地點、部落結構與酋長世襲三個層面。筆者並以此為基礎，進一步探討河套地區的行政區變化，以及部落安置的課題。本文指出隋在安置上主要有兩大特色：大型部落聯盟；可汗號的運用。此二特色至唐逐漸發生變化，貞觀年間唐逐漸推展唐朝的官僚制、郡縣制，並以此建置於部落結構之上。而透過對貞觀年間部落安置的觀察，630年與646年兩次處理內附部落問題的策略應當相異，後者即建構羈縻府州、都護府兩個體制因應。此二制度運作中，儘管官僚制、郡縣制得以推展至漠北，卻未有唐朝實際收取賦稅，或是掌握人口的證據，治理上可能比630年的治理更為鬆散。 文末，筆者從邊疆的概念切入，指出唐承漢之疆界，646年後運用「天可汗體制」建構漠北統治的正當性。然而，在實質的統治上，隋至唐初期皆以陰山為界，僅是在治理策略上有所變異。
This thesis analyze how China looked upon the concept of the frontier and how it designed regional administrative institution, and how it settled Northern Nomadic tribes in order to maintain stability on the frontier. My approach is about discussing the problems and reactions of institutional operation and the way China governed frontiers. The thesis uses Ordos Loop in Sui to early Tang as a case to study. In the chapter ‘Geographical environment and net,’ I discuss four regional administrative institutions, Xiazhou, Lingzhou, Shengzhou, and Fengzhou, and two traffic lines between them. Basing on this discussion, I portrait a picture that the political center transited from Shengzhou to Lingzhou in 581-649. The line ‘Xiazhou to Shengzhou’ could connect to Baidao, which was the major place that the battles between Sui and Turkish Nomadic Empire took place. The line and the other traffic line from Taiyuan to Baidao were the two main roads connecting China and Northern Nomadic tribes. After Sui Yang-Ti’s northern inspection tour in 607, Shengzhou became the political center in northern frontier. In 646, due to the demand from the Tiele tribes far in northern China, Tang built a new road to connect Tang and the Tiele tribes. After that, Lingzhou replaced Shengzhou and became the new political center in northern frontier, and the line from Lingzhou to Fengzhou also became more important. In the chapter ‘Change of Governance Institution and Frontier Concept,’ I analyze the discussion, which took place in 630, about that settlement of nomadic tribes. I generalize that Tang’s main concern was about three dimensions: the place of settlement, the structure of tribes and the succession of tribes’ leaders. According to this generalization, I proceed to investigate the variety of administrative district and tribes’ settlement in Ordos Loop, and then I conclude that Sui had two characteristics: tribal alliance and using of the title of ‘Khan.’ After 630, these characteristics gradually changed to the application of Chinese institution, such as the system of prefectures and counties and bureaucratic system. These Chinese institutions were built upon the tribe construction. Through the investigation of the settlement of tribes in 630 and 646, I point out that the ways in these two cases were different. In 646, Tang constructed the prefecture of Jimi and the Duhufu system. In the case, although the system of prefectures and counties and the bureaucratic system could be disseminated to northern frontier, even outside this frontier, there was no evidence that Tang had tax or popularity data from these Jimi areas. Therefore, the governance to Jimi areas in 646 is looser than that in 630. In the end of the thesis, I try to discuss these settlements with the concept of the frontier and point out that because of the claim of succession from Han, Tang used ‘TengriKhan’ system to justify the rule in non-Han’s frontier. However, according to tax and popularity data, from Sui to early Tang, China did not rule crossing Yinshan, and Sui and Tang only used different ways to govern frontier.
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