The CCP’s State Formation Experience in the Central Soviet Area (1927-1934)
|關鍵字:||中國共產黨;中央蘇區;國家建構;黨國體制;the Chinese Communist Party;the Central Soviet Area;State Formation;Party-state System||公開日期:||2016||摘要:||1927年國共分裂後，中國共產黨逐步走上工農武裝割據之路，並且在贛南、閩西地區開闢了一大片根據地，是為中央蘇區。雖然存在時間不長，卻是中共最初的執政經歷。從1935年的遵義會議開始，中共領導人因現實政治的需要，多次以黨內決議書寫中央蘇區的歷史。中國大陸學術界的相關研究深受這些決議束縛，關注路線政策的成敗得失與領導人的是非對錯。海外學術界的相關研究則多關注中共作為革命者，與農民、農村社會的關係。 本論文嘗試跳出上述既有研究的脈絡，從國家建構的角度來考察中共江西時期的革命。黨國體制的雛形在這一時期已然出現。第一章簡要敘述1927年以後中共打出蘇維埃革命旗號的過程，朱毛紅軍在井岡山上的革命經歷，以及中央蘇區在贛南、閩西的建立，作為背景介紹和問題先導。第二章具體探討中央蘇區的國家建構經驗。第一節討論中共由藉助宗族關係轉向壓制宗族的過程。第二節則是中共對黨組織的改造和發展。第三節詳細闡述中共如何重塑基層政權。第四節分析蘇區內形形色色的群眾組織的組成與運作。第五節則是研究中共對蘇區經濟的控制。結語對全文作一簡要概括，同時結合1949年後中共的國家建構，討論兩者之間的延續性。此外還對中央蘇區的失敗，和當時建構的國家體制之間的關係作一簡單的說明。
The Chinese Communist Party stepped on the road of armed independent regime of workers and peasants (工農武裝割據) after its relationship with the Kuomintang broke down in 1927. It opened up a base area in the south of Jiangxi Province and the west of Fujian Province (贛南、閩西) which was called the Central Soviet Area (中央蘇區). This area didn’t exist for a long time. But the CCP had learned how to be a party in power in these years. Since the Zunyi Conference (遵義會議) in 1935, the leaders of the CCP had written the history of the Central Soviet Area by the party’s resolutions many times, because of the political realities. The concerned studies in the academia of Mainland China were bound by these resolutions deeply, which focused on the success and failure of the leaders and their political line. On the other hand, European and American scholars favored peasant problems in the third world after 1960s. So their studies always focused on the relationship between rural community and the CCP. This thesis try to get out of the context of the previous studies and investigate the CCP’s revolution in the Jiangxi period in the perspective of state formation. The prototype of the CCP’s party-state system was built in this period. Chapter 1 is about the origin of the CCP’s soviet revolution, the experience of the Red Army in Jinggangshan Base Area (井岡山根據地) and the founding of the Central Soviet Area which is the background introduction and the guide for the thesis questions. Chapter 2 is about the state formation experience in the Central Soviet Area. The author discusses the process from the CCP’s having the aid of local clansmen to suppressing them in Section 1. Section 2 is about the transformation and developing of the CCP’s organization. In Section 3, the author discusses how the CCP reshape its grass-roots regime in detail. Then Section 4 is for analyzing the operation mode of many kinds of mass organizations in the soviet area. In the last section, the author inquires into the CCP’s measures to control the economic activities. The historical continuity of the CCP’s state formation is mentioned in the conclusion of this thesis which also including the explanation for the relevance between the failure of the Central Soviet Area and the party-state system.
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