On the Cosmology of Qi and the New Trend Towards Historicized Thinking during the Qing Dynasty: The Thought of Wang Fuzhi, Dai Zhen, and Zhang Xuecheng
|關鍵字:||氣化宇宙觀;王夫之;戴震;章學誠;史學化;陰陽;Cosmology of Qi;Wang Fuzhi;Dai Zhen;Zhang Xuecheng;Historicized Thinking;Yin-yang||公開日期:||2015||摘要:||本論文關注的核心議題，是中國在十七世紀明清易代刺激下的學術之變。筆者選擇把議題聚焦在「經學」典範轉移到「史學」典範的事實，繼而注意到這種新的史學化趨勢自明清之際即與氣化宇宙觀具有高度的親和性。從明代中葉以降，羅欽順首先把朱子的理氣論翻轉為「理在氣中」一說，及晚明王夫之運用多層次的陰陽思維理解天地間的萬事萬物，其中在人文世界明指包括「剛柔」、「義利」、「道器」等等，皆可謂是陰陽思維的體現。關於戴震、章學誠的學術思想交涉問題上，筆者認為若從氣化宇宙觀而論，不但章學誠「六經皆史」一說不能脫離「道器論」與「氣化宇宙觀」來理解──故謂「六經皆器」──而且戴震在其經學思想中，實已融入了許多從晚明以來「道器論」的特點，例如強調人倫日用與歷時性的特質，其實都可以在戴震的典章制度之論當中得到體現，這些部份若脫離氣化宇宙觀的思維方式都將是不可理解的。因此，本文論述的「清代史學化思想的新趨勢」，指的並不是近代史學的觀念，也不是說清代已形成一完全獨立於經學以外的學術型態，而指的是一種「史學化」的經學。筆者主張氣化宇宙觀作為明中葉以降一套深層而連續的認知方式，新的史學典範與氣化宇宙觀具有非常密切的親和性，釐清這個問題將有助於我們理解明清學術思想的性質與理路。
This thesis discusses the intellectual changes that took place in response to the transition from the Ming to the Qing dynasty during the seventeenth century. More precisely, it will focus on the shift from an intellectual model based on classical studies (jingxue) to one which takes historiography as its model, before discussing the close relationship which emerged during the transition from Ming to Qing between this new trend towards historicization and a view of cosmology centered on the transformation of qi (vital breath). During the second half of the Mind dynasty, Luo Qinshun inverted Zhu Xi’s understanding of the relation between principle (li) and qi by declaring that “principle is located within qi.” At the end of the Mind dynasty, Wang Fuzhi made use of a complex mode of thinking based on the yin-yang duality in order to comprehend the myriad things between heaven and earth. Within the cultural realm, for example, his understanding of traditional dualisms such as that of “firm and soft” (gangrou), “righteousness and benefit” (yili), and “the way and tools” (daoqi) finds a common root in his mode of thinking centered on the yin-yang duality. As to Dai Zhen and Zhang Xuecheng, it appears that if viewed from the perspective of their cosmology of qi, Zhang’s claim that “the Six Classics are all history” cannot be understood without reference to his discussion of “the way and tools” – which explains his assertion that “the Six Classics are all tools” – and his view of cosmology centered on the transformation of qi, while many elements related to the late-Ming discussion of “the way and tools” and which made their way into the institutional system promoted by Dai Zhen, such as an emphasis on everyday ethics and a diachronic approach, cannot be understood outside the framework of his mode of thought centered on a cosmology of qi. Consequently, what the “new trend towards historicized thinking during the Qing dynasty” refers to is neither a modern conception of historiography nor the development of a new academic discipline entirely independent from classical studies, but rather a form of historicization of classical studies. This study will therefore highlight the fact that the cosmology of qi not only represents a deep-seated and recurrent cognitive model from the second half of the Ming dynasty onwards, but is also closely related to the new trend towards historicization. By clarifying these issues, this thesis will contribute to deepening our understanding of the nature and logic of Ming and Qing academic thought.
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