Follow the Three Principles of the People: “ism-ization” implemented by the Nationalist government, 1925-1937.
|關鍵字:||主義;主義化;三民主義;孫中山;國民政府;轉型時代;主義時代;ism;ism-ization;Three Principles of the People;Sun Yat-sen;Nationalist government;the era of transformation;age of “ism”||公開日期:||2015||摘要:||本研究旨在討論1925年至1937年之間，國民政府如何推動三民主義的過程。官方對三民主義推行的積極和堅持，有其時代意義，反應了中國由「轉型時代」進入「主義時化」的轉變。使用「主義化」一詞，來界定推動的宗旨和歷程，是為了強調其所具有近乎宗教信仰的特質，希望從內在改變人民，成為三民主義的信仰者，服從政府的領導。是以，三民主義成為國民政府統治正當性的來源，推對三民主義的信仰則成為重要的治理手段。 在內容上將分成三個部分來說明三民主義「主義化」的歷史過程。第一部分討論三民主義的成立，在面對以共產主義為代表的社會主義思潮挑戰下，從孫中山開始的國民黨人，利用既有的各種政見「主張」加以詮釋而成為具理論體系的「主義」。第二部分則是從中央到地方的法律規範和實踐，指出官方如何從法理層次，實踐三民主義的信仰。第三部分，則從個人生活層面，討論官方企圖創造出一種合乎主義生活，讓人民生活於主義之中的努力。除了論及這些作為所得到的回應和反響，更重要的，將勾勒出過程中，官方試圖在理論和現實之間取得平衡的摸索。 或許，從結果來看，國民政府對三民主義信仰的推動，未取得理想中的勝利，甚或予人空洞、教條式的感覺，但仍確立了一種依憑主義而運作的政治模式。隨著「主義時代」的延續，這些特質仍將持續發酵，影響了之後歷史的發展。
The study focuses on the process of how the Nationalist government promoted the idea of the Three Principles of the People between 1925 and 1937. The Nationalist government’s promotion on the Three Principles of the People has its significance, which reflects its transformation from “the era of transformation” to “age of ism.”'' Using the term “ism-ization” to define this process is to emphasize the characteristics of quasi-religious belief in the Three Principles of the People. People were expected to internally changed by the Three Principles and then deeply believe them, which leads to their obedience to the government. Therefore, the Three Principles of the People was the source of the legitimacy for the Nationalist government, and promoting the Three Principles of the People functioned as an important technique of governance. The content of this thesis falls into three parts to illustrate the historical process of “ism-ization”. The first part demonstrates the establishment of the Three Principles of the People. Sun Yat-sen and the Nationalists formulated “-ism” with theoretical system by making use of all kinds of “proposals” under the challenge from Communism and Socialism. The second part of this thesis discusses how the Nationalist government practiced the Three Principles of the People at the judicial level via legal regulations and practices at both central and local governments. The third part of this thesis approaches from personal level and discusses the official''s effort to create a life corresponding to the ‘-ism’ and to make people live in the “-ism.” Apart from the discussion of the responses from these conducts, what is more important in this thesis is to portrait the process of how the Nationalist government strived to balance between theory and reality. From historical outcome, the Nationalist government did not achieve its ideal which aims to use the Three Principles of the People to monopolize the ideology of modern China. The Three Principles were regarded as empty dogmas, however, the example of the Nationalist government still established a political model that operates according to this ideology. With the continuation of the ‘age of ism,’ these features had influenced the historical development afterward.
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