From ‘Human Milk’ to Infant Formula:The Changing Reasons of Feeding Habits in Taiwan（1895-1989）
|Keywords:||嬰兒奶粉;母奶;人奶;哺育論述;良母;母愛;Infant formula;breast milk;“human milk”;good mother;feeding discourse;mother’s love||Issue Date:||2015||Abstract:||
本研究討論的核心命題是，為什麼戰後臺灣的主流哺育方式出現從母奶到奶粉的轉向。也就是說，筆者試圖解答，為什麼奶粉能夠在1970年代前後取代母奶，成為嬰兒的主要食物，1970年代的時空條件有何特殊之處。具體而言，筆者將從政府政策、奶粉廠商行銷與哺育論述變化三個面向切入探討奶粉哺育興起的背景，並透過口述訪問資料勾勒這些因素可能對母親們的哺育選擇麼造成什麼影響。並且，希望解讀哺育選擇變遷背後反映的臺灣良母形象的變遷。本文除了緒論與結論外，共分成三部分進行。 本研究首先處理日治時期臺灣的哺育實況與哺育論述。根據統計資料，母奶哺育，當時稱為人奶哺育，是臺灣人哺育習慣的主流，人奶哺育率高達97%。不過，在當時也已經出現母奶與牛奶孰佳的爭論。當時的醫界普遍認為母奶優於牛奶，原因有二：母奶哺育的嬰兒死亡率較低與母奶較營養，並在報章雜誌上大力宣導。筆者認為這些宣導文章的預設讀者並非臺灣人母親，而是因為遷移失去母乳哺育知識傳承來源在臺日人女性。 接著，筆者從政府政策、嬰兒奶粉廠商行銷策略、報章雜誌上的哺育論述切入討論戰後臺灣奶粉哺育興起的背景條件。政策的部分，經濟部在1973年為了平衡與日本貿易的逆差，開放設置嬰兒奶粉工廠、進口散裝嬰兒奶粉，與輔導國內嬰兒奶粉產業發展。嬰兒奶粉廠商以「母乳化」奶粉吸引消費者，並與醫院合作推銷嬰兒奶粉。報章雜誌的哺育論述普遍認為母乳最佳，不過，奶粉可以是沒有母奶時合理的選擇。 筆者透過口述訪問發現，1970年代之後的母親們在知道母乳優於奶粉的情況下，依然選擇奶粉哺育的原因，是因為她們在當時都市化的趨勢中向都市遷移，與母乳哺育知識的傳承來源斷裂，求助無門，再加上社會製造了許多讓母奶消失的因素。此外，當時的哺育論述雖然承認母乳最好，但奶粉也是在沒有母奶時合理的選擇，政府奶粉開放政策與經濟發展又使奶粉的價格變成可負擔，終於使奶粉哺育率逐漸攀升。最後，筆者指出，從人奶、奶粉，到母奶再起的變化，反映了臺灣的良母內涵從與哺育選擇無關，到母奶與母愛╱良母形象強力連結的現象。
This thesis concerns with the shifting of the feeding habits from breastfeeding to infant formula in the 1970s; that''s, to explore the social-political conditions of the 1970s Taiwan, where the infant formula replaced breast milk as the main food source for infants. I will discuss this issue from three dimensions: policy, marketing strategies of infant formula companies, and feeding discourse on newspapers and magazines; and use data from oral interviews to investigate how mothers were influenced by these factors when making feeding decisions, before I analysis how this shifting reflected the changing of the “good mother” images in Taiwan. My research begins with explorations into the situations and discussions about breastfeeding during Japanese rule period. Statistically speaking, breastfeeding, which was called “human milk”, was the main feeding habit at that time, and yet, there was still an ongoing discussion on whether breast milk or milk would be better for infants. The medical professed that breast milk was better than milk for two main reasons: one was the lower mortality rates of infants nurtured from breastfeeding; the other was the higher nutritional value of breast milk. Doctors then preached this idea on newspapers and via magazines, of which the target audience was not Taiwanese mothers but Japanese mothers in Taiwan, who, ever since the immigration, had lost their sources of the breastfeeding knowledge conventionally handed down from older generations or circulated among mothers. As for the emergence of infant formula in post-war Taiwan, I proceed to investigations into the social-cultural conditions of 1970s. In terms of governmental policy, in 1973, to balance the trade deficit with Japan, the Ministry of Economic Affairs allowed the establishments of factories and the imports of infant-formula. The milk-powder companies used “similar to breast milk” as the slogan and cooperated with hospitals to promote the infant formula and attract consumers. In the newspapers and magazines, the breast milk was generally acknowledged as the best food source, the infant formula was gradually considered a reasonable choice when there was no breast milk. In answer to the question about why mothers would choose infant formula even when they knew breast milk was better, I conclude that such decisions were made under the circumstances where mothers were informed by the feeding discourse that infant formula was a reasonable alternative to breast milk, ever since they had lost their access to the basic breastfeeding knowledge after they left their hometown during urbanization. Once the infant formula was made more affordable, it witnessed the rise and popularization of infant formula. Finally, with observations from the discourse of “human milk” as the best infant food source, the emergence of infant formula as a reasonable/preferable choice, and the resurgence in breastfeeding, I intend to demonstrate how breastfeeding comes to mean mother’s love, and would contend that the “good mother” image also shifts through feeding discourses, and is gradually constructed or associated with mothers’ feeding choices.
|Appears in Collections:||歷史學系|
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