Marginal People and New Regime:The Making of Fujian Lan Li Family during Early Qing Dynasty
|關鍵字:||藍理;虛擬親屬;宗族組織;地方軍事化;歷史人類學;Lan Li;fictive kinship;lineage organization;local militarization;historical anthropology||公開日期:||2016||摘要:|| 本文處理的是明清易代與地方社會之間的關係，包括東南海疆如何整編進王朝國家的治理秩序，以及政治動盪下地方家族的建構。透過福建漳浦藍理家族的個案，有助於我們重新理解明末清初中國東南民間社會中的國家制度，還有地方人群生存的集體策略。 在研究方法與材料上，除了傳世文獻的解讀，本文更著重於實地的田野調查。田野考察不僅能夠蒐集到尚未出版的地方性材料，例如族譜、碑刻、文集等，我們同時強調在田野中閱讀文獻。透過親臨歷史現場與接觸人群，感受當地的物質環境與人文風俗，能夠幫助我們將文獻敘述置於真實具體的空間中反覆咀嚼、思索，從而體會更貼近地方脈絡的歷史解釋。 本文的研究發現：首先，明中葉以來漳浦沿海的寇亂，加劇破壞王朝對地方社會的治理秩序，此時「防倭」成為合法化民間築堡自衛的官方性話語。實際上，沿海地方築堡軍事化的背後，還有地方人群之間資源競奪以及內部矛盾等衝突因素。這個背景為沿海地方人群，在清政權的東南征服過程中，提供尋求合作的生存籌碼。其次，在清廷、鄭成功對峙期間，清廷積極實施的招撫政策，一方面成為地方民眾詐降來歸的可乘之機，一方面也達到收編地方武裝群體的實質效果。藍理及其族人在招撫政策下投身清廷水師，並藉由建立軍功後的議敘制度，奠定其家族在漳浦地方的根本基礎。第三，配合清初福建「糧戶歸宗」的稅制改革，藍理重修祖祠種玉堂，以建立制度化的宗族組織，從而與地方上長期競爭的橫口王氏相抗衡。最後，藍鼎元及藍姓族人透過族譜、文集的層層書寫，重新形塑出以種玉堂為象徵符號的集體認同，同時擴大藍氏族人的群體範圍。這樣的文本建構策略一直沿用至當代，並納入少數民族畲族的族群識別元素。
This thesis explores the relationship between Ming-Qing transition and local societies, including the incorporation of southeastern coast of China into the ruling order of Qing dynasty and the making of local lineage organization during political turmoil. The case study of the Lan Li family in Zhangpu, Fujian contributes to our new understanding of the operation of state institutions and local peoples’ survival strategies in southeastern coast of China during the Ming-Qing transition period. In terms of methodology and materials, in addition to the interpretation of elite literature, the thesis focuses more on field research. Through fieldwork, not only can we collect unpublished local materials, such as genealogy, stone inscriptions and literati collections, we can also reconsider the historical significance of these materials in the field. The findings of the thesis are as follows. First, the pirate raids along the Zhangpu coasts since mid-Ming gravely undermined Ming’s rule in local societies, and at this time, “defense against pirates” became an official statement that hastened people’s building fortifications for self-defense. In fact, behind the fortification and militarization in this area, there were also the conflicting factors such as resource competitions and internal contradictions among local peoples. The background was that peoples along the coasts offered their military force as bargaining chips for survival to seek cooperation with the Qing Regime as Qing conquered southeastern coast of China. Second, during the confrontation between Qing and Koxinga, the Qing Regime actively implemented the policy of pacification, which on the one hand became a good incentive for local peoples to collaborate and on the other hand achieved the actual effects of enlisting local armed groups. Lan Li and his co-interest groups joined the Qing navy under the policy of pacification, and with the awarding institutions for their military feats, they laid the very foundation of their pseudo-family in Zhangpu. Third, in accordance with the tax reform of “allocating tax households to clans” in Fujian in early Qing, Lan Li renovated the ancestral hall, “Jade-growing Hall,” to establish an institutionalized lineage organization so as to compete with their long-term local competitor: the Wang family in Hengko. Finally, through layers of genealogy and literary works, Lan Dingyuan and his “clansmen” fabricated a collective identity with Jade-growing Hall as its symbol and enlarged the definition of Lan clan. Such discourse of textual construction has been practiced till present day and has incorporated the ethnic identification of the minority She people.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。