National Acts in Violation of the Principle of Rule of Law during the Martial Law Period-Taking the Death Sentence Cases of Criminals Charged with Sedition as an Example
|關鍵字:||正當法律程序;法治國原則;法律保留原則;罪刑法定原則;罪刑相當原則;溯及既往禁止原則;轉型期正義;證據法則;權力分立原則;Due process of Law;Principle of constitutional state;Principle of legal reservation;Principle of a Legally Prescribed Punishment for a Specified Crime;Principle of Punishment in Accordance with Crime;Principle of non-retroactivity;Transitional Justice;Evidence Law;Principle of separation of powers||公開日期:||十二月-2005||期刊:||國家發展研究||卷:||5||期:||1||頁數:||109-148||摘要:||我國在戒嚴時期，充斥「以統治者意志為最高指導原則」之恣意行政、恣意立法及恣意司法之國家行為，叛亂犯之人權嚴重受到侵害，此等國家恣意行為嚴重違反「法治國原則」。本文針對國家恣意行為，分別就立法、行政及司法等三面向加以探討，以「恣意立法」而言，包括唯一死刑、違反罪刑法定之構成要件明確性原則或罪刑相當原則等之不當立法；就「恣意行政」方西，則常有違反法律保留原則、法律優位原則及權力分立原則之行政恣意作為；在「恣意司法」方面，充斥著行政干預司法、司法不獨立等嚴重的現象。另外，違反證據法則或禁止溯及既往原則，以及量刑欠缺客觀化等違法或不當審判，亦屬常見之恣意司法行為。此外，本文亦以現存官方檔案、民間文獻及受害者家屬之陳述等檔案資料中，以部分叛亂犯之死亡案件為例，剖析該箏叛亂犯之死亡案件的原貌，並就我國在戒嚴時期違反「法治國原則」，以各種恣意國家行為迫害人權之事實，進行法律之論述及檢討，藉以凸顯戒嚴時期人民的基本人權，在多重恣意的國家行為迫害下，所受到嚴重的摧殘。本文文末，則就現行相關補償的法令，應如何填補上述叛亂犯家屬之損害，以及現行法令未能涵蓋之部分，提出建議及說理，期能作為我國落實「轉型期正義」的參考。
In the period of enforcement of the Martial Law in our country, there are acts of state including exercising administrative power, legislative power, and judiciary power at will everywhere in accordance with willing of ruler being the golden rule. These acts of state critically violate "Principle of Constitutional State" and a rebel's human rights are seriously infringed. With respect of exercising legislative power at will, it includes the mandatory death penalty and improper legislation, e.g. violating the Principle of a Legally Prescribed Punishment for a Specified Crime, Clarity Principle of Law or the Principle of Punishment in Accordance with Crime. With respect of exercising administrative power at will, it often includes violation of the Preservation Principle of Law, the Precedence Principle of Law and the Principle of Separation of Powers. With respect of exercising judiciary power at will, It is the most serious phenomenon that administrative power interferes judiciary power resulting in non-independence judiciary. Besides, it is also common behavior of exercising judiciary power at will that violates the Evidence Law, the Principle of Non-Retroactivity and constitutes illegal or improper judgment, e.g. lacking objectivity for estimating penalty. In this article, we try to legally discuss and review the facts of rebel's cases for death penalty violating the Principle of Constitutional State during the period of enforcement of the Martial Law in our country to spotlight that human rights are critically infringed by persecution of acts of state at will. However, we only can analyze the truth of rebel's cases of death penalty by limited reference material such as official Ii les, folk documents and the statements of victim's family members. This article also propose some suggestions and interpretations how fills in damage by reference law of compensation currently in effect and applies mutatis mutandis to the other uncovered part as consultation.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。