Supervising Local Autonomy and Judicial Appeal: The New Partnership between Central and Local Governments
|關鍵字:||地方自治;自治監督;憲法保障;解釋訴訟;新夥伴關係;Local Autonomy;self-government supervising;Constitution protection;interpretation litigations;namely partnership||公開日期:||六月-2005||期刊:||國家發展研究||卷:||4||期:||2||頁數:||141-181||摘要:||依憲法第一一八條，直轄市自治地位係採法律保障。惟經司法院大法官釋字第五二七號、第五五○號、第五五三號解釋影響下，直轄市自治地位已拉高至憲法保障層級。中央與地方關係已由過去上命下從之隸屬關係轉化為合作協調之新的關係架構。在這種新的關係架構下，自治監督機關可藉預防性監督與抑制性監督、合法性監督與合目的性監督介入地方自治團體之自治權。地方自治團體之預算於年度開始後三個月內未完成審議、預算案經覆議後仍維持原決議、須代行處理態樣等情況發生時，自治監瞥機關可加以干預矯正。惟相對的，地方自治團體則可藉行政爭訟、解釋訴訟主張其權利。而依釋字第五五○號，中央縱使要以法律為基礎增加地方之義務或負擔，還須跟地方協商，不能再片面以法律課予地方義務；中央與地方趨向一個新夥伴關係。
According to Article 118 of the Constitution, the autonomous status of a municipality is protected by law. However, based on the Judicial Yuan Interpretation Nos. 527, 550, and 553, the protection of the status has become liaison with the Constitution. The relation between central and local governments has been transformed from a subordinate one into a cooperative and coordinating one, namely partnership. The autonomy of local self-government entities can be intervened by self-government supervising institutions by means of preventive, restraining, legitimate and proposed supervisions under this new partnership. The supervising institutions can intervene and correct the entities when the budget of the latter is not approved in three months after the budget year begins, when the budget proposal is reserved as it is after second discussion, and when the it happens that action on behalf of the entity has to be taken. On the other hand, the entities can acclaim their rights by administrative and interpretation litigations. And, according to the J.Y. Interpretation No. 550, the central government has to coordinate with the local authorities when it would like to increase the obligation or burden of the latter by law and its unilateral action is no longer applicable.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。