|Title:||A proposed approach to confirm heroin administration - Regional differences in heroin purity is a major factor||Authors:||Chen, Wei-Ru
Kicman, Andrew T
Maurer, Hans H
|Keywords:||Brown mixture; Cough medicine; Herbal medicine; Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry; Poppy seed; Street heroin; Thebaine; Urine||Issue Date:||Feb-2022||Publisher:||ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE||Journal Volume:||128||Source:||Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP||Abstract:||
In forensic toxicology, a marker of street heroin use is urgent especially in the absence of urinary 6-monoacetylmorphine. ATM4G, the Glucuronide of Acetylated product of Thebaine compound 4 Metabolite (ATM4), arising from byproducts of street heroin synthesis has been considered as a useful marker in some European studies. However, whether ATM4G is a universal marker particularly in Southeast Asia due to 'street' heroin with high purity, it's still unclear. To investigate putative markers for different regions, ATM4G and other metabolites including the Acetylated product of Thebaine compound 3 Metabolite (ATM3) and thebaol, also originated from thebaine were detected in 552 urine samples from heroin users in Taiwan. Results were compared with that from samples collected in the UK and Germany. Only a sulfo-conjugate of ATM4, ATM4S, was detected in 28 Taiwanese users using a sensitive MS3 method whilst out of 351 samples from the UK and Germany, ATM4G was present in 91. Thebaol-glucuronide was first time detected in 118. No markers were detected in urine following herbal medicine use or poppy seed ingestion. The presence of ATM4S/ATM4G might be affected by ethnicities and heroin supplied in regions. Thebaol-glucuronide is another putative marker with ATM4G and ATM4S for street heroin use.
|Appears in Collections:||法醫學科所|
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