|Title:||Aberrant Upregulation of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 Promotes Proliferation and Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Coordinated Activation of AhR and β-Catenin Signaling||Authors:||Chen, Chih-Ta
|Keywords:||AhR; Akt; IDO1; PTEN; Src; hepatocellular carcinoma; kynurenine; metastasis; proliferation; β-catenin||Issue Date:||28-Oct-2021||Publisher:||MDPI||Journal Volume:||22||Journal Issue:||21||Source:||International journal of molecular sciences||Abstract:||
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Chronic liver inflammation due to hepatitis virus infection and other major effectors is a major risk factor of HCC. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), a heme enzyme highly expressed upon stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), is activated to modulate the tumor microenvironment and potentially crucial in the development of certain cancer types. Earlier studies have majorly reported an immunomodulatory function of IDO1. However, the specific role of IDO1 in cancer cells, particularly HCC, remains to be clarified. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma (TCGA LIHC) dataset in the current study revealed a significant correlation between IDO1 expression and HCC. We further established inducible IDO1-expressing cell models by coupling lentivirus-mediated knockdown and IFN-γ induction of IDO1 in normal and HCC cells. In functional assays, proliferation and motility-related functions of HCC cells were compromised upon suppression of IDO1, which may partially be rescued by its enzymatic product, kynurenine (KYN), while normal hepatocytes were not affected. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a reported endogenous KYN receptor, is suggested to participate in tumorigenesis. In mechanistic studies, IDO1 activation promoted both AhR and β-catenin activity and nuclear translocation. Immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation assays further disclosed interactions between AhR and β-catenin. In addition, we identified a Src-PTEN-PI3K/Akt-GSK-3β axis involved in β-catenin stabilization and activation following IDO1-mediated AhR activation. IDO1-induced AhR and β-catenin modulated the expression of proliferation- and EMT-related genes to facilitate growth and metastasis of HCC cells. Our collective findings provide a mechanistic basis for the design of more efficacious IDO1-targeted therapy for HCC.
|Appears in Collections:||生物化學暨分子生物學科研究所|
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