A Study on the Wencao in the Southern Song Dynasty: the Activity of Pirates, the Trans- port and Sale of Illegal Salt and the Development of Coastal Shipping
|關鍵字:||溫艚;南宋;海盜;私鹽;航運;wencao, ships from Wenzhou;Southern Song dynasty;Pirate;Illegal saltShipping||公開日期:||六月-2011||期刊:||臺大歷史學報||頁數:||001-059||摘要:||「溫艚」一詞，見於南宋晚期的文獻。泉州與廣州的地方官曾用以描述寇掠當地的海盜船，而指稱這些海盜船來自浙東。此一詞語所涉及的史事及其發生背景，尚待深入探討。本文考述「溫艚」的活動，推斷其來源與人員的組成，並探討其活動發生的歷史環境。首先敘述「溫艚」活動的史實，指出這是由浙東南下的海盜船，在閩、粵沿海劫掠海舶，侵擾岸上居民；其次推論這些海盜船同時也是商船，販運浙東沿海所產的私鹽到閩、粵銷售，並與當地人結合，從事走私活動，演變而為海盜；然後以浙東沿海諸郡，特別是溫、台兩州的私鹽問題，解釋「溫艚」何以來自浙東沿海；最後從更加寬廣的視野，說明「溫艚」的活動，其實是唐宋沿海航運發展的一部分。
The term "wencao" (溫艚，ships from Wenzhou) appeared in official documents of the late Southern Song dynasty. Officials of Quanzhou and Guanzhou, used the term to refer to the sea rovers which raided their realm, and pointed out that the rovers came from Zhetong. This article probes the historical meaning of this term deeply in four sections. Section One describes the activities of wencao, and points out that these rovers sailed from Zhetong to Fujian and Guantong, raided mercantile ships on the sea and people living on the seashore. Section Two infers that these rovers at the sea time were mercantile ships, which transported the illegal salt produced in Zhetong to Fujian and Guantong, and cooperated with natives to sell smuggled goods. Section three discusses the problem of illegal salt along the coastal region of Zhetong, especially in Wenzhou and Taizhou, and shows that this was the the reason why the wencao came from this area. Section four explains that the activities of wencao. Viewed from a broad perspective, they were part of the development of the coastal shipping in Tang-Song period.
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