The Intellectual Evolution of Japan Intellectuals who Absorbed Western Civilization in Late Tokugawa Period
|關鍵字:||箕作阮甫;?谷宕陰;佐久間象山;思想變遷;Mitsukuri Genpo;Shionoya Touin;Sakuma Shouzan;interaction and movement;ideology||公開日期:||十二月-2007||期刊:||臺大歷史學報||頁數:||149-199||摘要:||日本在幕末維新期，西方列強勢力逼近之際，為汲取西洋近代文明，掀起「蘭學」風潮，而以各藩士族子弟積極吸收兵學、砲術，以備國防之用為最。當時「蕃書調所」為整備高水平教師陣容，聘任諸多具有西洋知識的「蘭學者」。其中算作阮甫(1799~1863)、?谷宕陰(1806~1867)、佐久間象山(1811~1864)三人不但修習儒學，亦兼修「蘭學」同時對列強入侵日本產生高度危機意識，其間彼此思想主張立有激盪與變遷，對日本文明開化有其高度貢獻。津山藩(今岡山縣)出身的算作阮甫於1839年出任幕府「天文方」幕僚，並受命為「蕃書和解御用」翻譯官。曾於1853年6月翻譯美國總統Millard Fillmore (1800~1874)的國書；同年7月，與幕府外交官川路聖誤(1801~1868)共同翻譯俄羅斯使節Evfemi Vasilievitch Putiatin (1803~1883)的國書。爾後擔任「蕃書調所」之首席教授，其精湛的外語能力與廣博的世界地理知識，影響了德川幕末之國防、軍事政策。江戶出身的幕府儒官坦谷岩陰精通漢學，有「日東歐陽修」之稱，著有《隔靴論》、《籌海私議》論及日本海防政策，曾是幕府「天保改革」之重要幕僚。岩陰向來關注清廷在鴉片戰爭時的應對措施及其帶給日本之影響，曾致力蒐集相關資訊，集結成《阿芙蓉遺聞》（七卷）及《岩陰存稿》。該著作之內涵最能反映其中國觀之形成過程。佐久間象山為信州藩士，1853年美國培旦(Matthew Calbraith Perry, 1794~1858)率艦隊叩關日本時，奉命前往浦賀港觀察美國艦隊的動靜，曾提出海防諭向幕府獻策。象山從鎖國論的支持者轉變為尊王開國論者，《省警錄》即是體現其思想主張的重要原本，其「東洋道德，西洋藝術」前衛的世界觀，對日本的近代化造成相當程度的影響。本文於日本近代化的歷史脈絡中，從思想變遷的角度切入，比較三人的思想異同，並藉由解讀三人的原始史料之內涵，探究其思想體系之形成，同時分別論述三人在傳統儒教與現代文明糾葛的日本社會中所扮演的角色。
During the Japanese Bakumatsu-Ishin era when the Great Powers approached, the 'Rangaku' trend prevailed, attempting to absorb some of the modern western culture. The Hanshi offspring strove to master the military strategies and gunnery for the national defense preparation. At that time, Banshoshirabesho (the antecedent of the University of Tokyo) engaged the service of Rangaku scholars with rich western knowledge for the preparation of the higher levels of faculty. Mitsukuri Genpo (1799~l863), Shionoya Touin (l806~l867) and Sakuma Shouzan (1811~1864) studied both Confucianism and 'Rangaku' and generated high crisis consciousness about the Great Powers invading Japan as well. Their ideologies catalyzed and evolved contributing greatly to the modernization in Japan. Mitsukuri Genpo, originally from Tsuyama Han (Okayama Prefecture), was a 'Tenmontaka' at Bakufu and was commissioned to serve as the translation official of 'Banshowagegoyou' in 1839. In June 1853 he translated the credentials of American President, Millard Fillmore (1800~1868) and in July 1853 he collaborated with Bakufu Diplomat Kawaji Toshiakira (l801~l868) in the translation of the credentials of Russian Ambassador Evfemi Vasilievitch Putiatin (1803~1883). Later on, he served as the chief professor at 'Banshoshirabesho'. His brilliant foreign language competence and comprehensive knowledge of world geography of whom influenced the national defense and military policy of modernization in late Tokugawa Japan. Shionoya Touin, Bakufu Junkan (in charge of Confucianism), born in Edo, was good at sinology, winning the name of 'Japanese Oya Sho'. His works, including "Kakkaron" and "Chukaishigi," addressed the coast-defenses policy in Japan and he was once the vital assistant in Bakufu 'Tenpounokaikaku'. Touin was concerned about the correspodence measures of late Qing Dynasty in Opium War and their impacts on Japan. He collected related information and edited it under the title "Afuyou Ibun" (7 volumes) and "Touin Sonkou". His works reflected the formation process of his perspectives on China. Sakuma Shouzan was a Hanshi of Shinshuu and was ordered to observe the movement of American fleet at Uraga Port when, led by Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794~1858), it entered Japan in 1853. He had offered his strategy based on naval defense theory. Shouzan changed from supporting the nation-closure position to respecting the emperor and supporting the nation-opening position. "Sho Ei Ro" embodied his thought, and his stress on "Oriental values and Western arts" had an impact on Japan’s modernization process, as well. This paper compares and contrasts these three persons via the angle of their interaction and movements in the historical context of the modernization in Japan. Based on historical materials, the formation of ideology is explored and the roles of these three in that Japanese society shaped by both traditional Confucianism and modern culture are also discussed.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。