The Jinshi Examination for the Jurchens and Its Impact on the Jurchen Polity in the Twelfth-Thirteenth Century
|關鍵字:||金代;女真文字;女真進士科;策論進士;金世宗;金章宗;Jin dynasty;Jurchen;Jurchen language;Jinshi examination for the Jurchen;Shizong Emperor r. 1161-1189;Zhangzong Emperor r. 1l89-1208||公開日期:||六月-2004||期刊:||臺大歷史學報||頁數:||097-132||摘要:||自隋唐時期開始，科舉便是國家選拔官僚的重要制度，宋代君主對進士科的重視，更使得進士出身的官員在政治上扮演極為重要的角色。契丹遼朝與早期的金朝君主也用科舉選取官員，但是這些官員的地位和影響力，往往不及契丹、女真的功臣子弟或宗室貴族。而進士考試似也從未成為統治族群入仕的管道。直到金世宗(1161~1189在位)大定十三年(1173)，配合世宗的譯經事業，首次舉行以女真字學學生為對象，用女真文字考試的女真策論進士科考試。由於這一次考試的成功，大定二十年(1180)之後，女真策論進士正式成為金代科舉的項目，一直到金末。本文的目的有二：第一在於釐清這個制度成立的過程，暸解世宗及其他女真臣僚為何試圖透過這個政策，達到提升女真子弟之文治能力的目標；第二，在於從女真進士政治上的表現，分析經由這個管道入仕的女真文治人才，對於女真政權內部的權力分配有何影響。
Beginning in the Sui and Tang periods, the civil service examinations was an important system for selecting government officials. Rulers in the Song dynasty placed great value on the Jinshi examinations, with the result that those who entered officialdom through the examinations played an important role in government. The Khitan Liao court and the early Jin rulers also used the examination system to select officials, but the status and influence of these officials rarely reached those of the heirs of prominent Khitan or Jurchen ministers or the imperial clansmen. And it seems that the Jinshi exam did not become the route to the dominant class. It was not until 1173, under Jin Shizong (r. 1161 1189) that a special Jurchen-language Jinshi examination system was held on behalf of Jurchen language scholars. This was in conjunction with Shizong's classics translation project. Because of the success of this examination, from 1180 until the end of the dynasty, Jurchen special exams became a formal part of the Jin civil service examination system. This article has two objectives. The first is to assess the process of the establishment of this system, to understand the reasoning of Shizong and his Jurchen ministers in implementing this policy to achieve the goal of promoting Jurchens with civil capability. The second is to examine the Jurchen civil talent that emerged from this official track after the appearance of Jurchen Jinshi in the government, and to explore the impact on the divisions of power within the Jurchen polity.
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