Two Jesuit Madonna Icons: Religious Dimensions of Catholicism in Late-Ming China
|關鍵字:||聖母像;天主;利瑪竇;李瑪諾;楊廷筠;Madonna icons;Lord of Heaven;Matteo Ricci;Manuel Diaz;Yang Tingyn||公開日期:||六月-2017||期刊:||臺大歷史學報||頁數:||049-118||摘要:||明末耶穌會傳教士帶來兩類聖母聖像(icon)，一是羅馬大聖母堂聖路加式聖母抱子像，另一則是《程氏墨苑》之聖母木刻畫，圖像源於西班牙塞維爾大主教座堂古像。前者明確於利瑪竇時傳入中國，因此西安所發現的一件仿製立軸常被猜測為晚明時期所作。這兩件作品多被視為具中國風格的聖母圖之早期例證，卻很少共同放在明末中國天主教脈絡下討論。
The Jesuits, during the late Ming period brought two Madonna icons to China: one was one of St. Luke's type, from Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome; the other a Chinese woodcut of the Virgin with Child, published in Chengshi Moyuan (Cheng's Ink Garden), based on the Virgen de la Antigua of Seville Cathedral, Spain. The Roman Madonna was confirmed to have been brought to China during the period of Matteo Ricci, and thus a Xian duplicate was considered to be made of that time. These two Madonna pictures were to a great extent regarded as early examples of the Sinizised Madonna, but little research has been conducted that considers both together in the historical context of Chinese Catholicism. As to Christian iconography, the central theme of these two icons was to emphasize the Virgin Mary as "Queen of Heaven," a specific meaning of the Virgin imagery. For Cheng's Madonna, this article would also turns attention to South China, where Cheng's work was published, in contrast with the past research which was focused on Ricci and Beijing. By so doing, this article argues that this Madonna print was more possibly associated with another Jesuit, Manuel Diaz. The contextualization of Cheng's Madonna in the South enables us to examine the local interpretations of the image. The article aims to argue, based on these two icons and their local responses, that the Jesuit missionaries showed ambiguity toward local Chinese religions and cults. The missionaries likely sought to adapt to Chinese cognition, and thus cross-religious interactions in this intercultural setting were anticipated without doubts. Therefore, the traditional image of the Jesuit renunciation of local Chinese religions should be re-considered, and the Jesuits’ encounters with late-Ming China were more complex than thought before, based on the research of these two icons. Recent reflections on the problems of Confucian Christianity are also brought to the fore. Moreover, religious experiences of some Chinese literati, both Catholic and non-Catholic, was also discussed, such as Yang Tingyun. This research thus reveals some interactions between Catholic images and Chinese local religions beyond the scope of given canons and written texts.
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