A Study on the Production Processes and Costs of Bio-diesel
本研究依據台糖食用大豆油及宜蘭農業試驗所提供之葵花子進行實驗，由不同油品產率結果所得數據參考Zhang et al. (2003 b)的模擬製造程序，推估三種不同精製生質柴油、及粗製生質柴油年產量(8,000、30,000、及100,000公噸)。結果顯示，三種不同產量((8,000、30,000、及100,000公噸/年)下，(1) 進口中南美洲大豆油精製生質柴油損益平衡價格(break-even price of biodiesel, BBP)分別為1,172、1,042、及998 USD/公噸，粗製生質柴油為766、676及647元(美元,USD)/公噸；(2) 進口葵花子油精製生質柴油為1,172、1,042、998USD/公噸，粗製生質柴油為861、771、742元(美元,USD)/公噸，(此處原料價格參考中華民國關稅總局2003年中南美洲進口物料，含15%關稅及運費價格，粗製大豆油0.619USD kg-1，粗製葵花子油0.689 USD kg-1。柴油於2003年之售價為517元(美元,USD)/公噸，而副產品甘油之利潤較高，而故當產量提升後，生產生質柴油淨稅後利潤開始提升，損益平衡價格亦明顯下降。雖然因葵花子油原料成本較高，但其生質柴油產量較高，因此在大量生產下與大豆油的生產成本沒有太大的差別。經本研究經濟分析評估後以進口中南美洲大豆油生產精製生質柴油其成本價格(BBP)為，31.53、27.73及26.45元(新台幣,NTD)/公升；粗製生質柴油成本價格(BBP)為，22.41、19.78及18.91元(新台幣,NTD)/公升；而進口葵花子油生產精製生質柴油其成本價格(BBP)為34.28、30.48及29.20元(新台幣,NTD)/公升；粗製生質柴油價格(BBP)為25.20、22.56、21.70元(新台幣,NTD)/公升。因此產量越高，BBP值越低，越具有市場競爭力。
Abstract Part Ι:Biodiesel production process Biodiesel is generally made by the pressing and the transesterification of oil-bearing crops such as soybeans, sunflower seeds, or rapeseeds. The main feature of biodiesel is that it is environmently friendly and reuses the land. By using fallow farmlands for growing oil-bearing crops, farmers can have the opportunity to work, which reduces government’s loading on subsidizing for fallowing. Furthermore, the absorption of carbon dioxide in the air by the plants as they grow also helps the nations abide by Kyoto Protocol in reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases to reach overall objectives. The addition of biodiesel also effectively lowers the exhaust emissions of COX, NOX, and TOC by diesel engines as compared to use petroleum diesel. This study utilized sunflower seeds and soybeans provided by the Agricultural Research Institute of I-Lan County as raw materials to produce biodiesel. The oil yields from the pressing of raw materials were 27.3% for sunflower seeds whereas only 1.6% for soybeans. The raw oil was then mixed with methyl alcohol and NaOH to undergo transesterification, followed by the distillation that gave rise to refined biodiesel. After comparing the physical properties of refined biodiesel, petroleum diesel, and the store-bought biodiesel, as well as performing simulated distillation analyses, it was found that the quality and performance of refined biodiesel were between the store-bought biodiesel and petroleum diesel. It had higher heating value and better burning quality after distillation. When the refined biodiesel was put into common 125 cc motorcycles (B30) for road tests, no noticeable differences were observed during driving. If the production yield and quality of refined biodiesel are furthen enhanced continuously, it will be a suitable fuel source for both diesel and gasoline cars, which will greatly promote the use of biodiesel. Part II: Economic assessments of production processes of biodiesel Baseing on the data from Taiwan Sugar Corporation’s edible soybean oil and experiment results of sunflower seeds by I-Lan Agricultural Research Institute, and adapting the simulated production procedures by Zhang et al. (2003 b), economic assessments of manufacturing of biodiesel at three different annual production levels (8,000, 30,000, and 100,000 metrics tons (MTs)) were performed. The results revealed that at these three annual production levels, the after-tax rates of return were -1.05, 0.95, and 0.91% , respectively for soybean oil, and were-1.42, -1.47, and 1.52%, respectively for sun sunflower seed oil (The raw material prices were based on the “2003 Central and South America average import duty-inclusive quotes” by the Directorate General of Customs of the Republic of China with crude soybean oil of 0.619USD kg-1, Crude sunflower seed oil: 0.689 USD kg-1(2003). As the profit derived from the Biodiesel byproduct – glycerol of is relatively high, the (net annual profit afer tax, NNP) of biodiesel production augments as the production level increases. When produced in large quantity, the higher biodiesel yield by sunflower seeds offset the higher cost of the crude sunflower seed oils that resulted in similar production costs with using soybean oil as the raw material. The breakeven pricess point(BBPs) for generating crude biodiesel from soybean oil at the above-mentioned three production levels were $766, $676, and $647 USD tonne -1 respectively, or equivalent to 22.41, 17.78, and 18.91 NTD liter-1 respectively. The BBPs of curde biodiesel for sunflower seed oil were 25.20, 22.56, and 21.70 NTD liter-1 , respectively. Therefore, the higher the production level, the lower the BBP, and the higher the market competitiveness.
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