Occurrence of Perfluorinated Compounds in the Effluent of the Electronic Industrial Plant in Taiwan
|關鍵字:||全氟有機物;全氟辛酸;全氟辛烷磺酸;全氟烴基磺酸;全氟羧酸;高級氧化處理;PFCs;PFOA;PFOS;PFAS;PFCA;AOP||公開日期:||2008||摘要:||全氟有機物(perfluorinated compounds, PFCs)被廣泛使用在工商業的產品上已經有半世紀之久了。因為PFCs的持久性與潛在的健康危害，使得環境中存在PFCs的問題變成是重要的議題。而全氟辛酸(perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA)與全氟辛烷磺酸(perfluorooctyl sulfonate, PFOS)被認為在PFCs中，引起環境污染所關注的議題之一。研究使用液相層析質譜儀(LC/MS/MS)進行10種目標PFCs的濃度分析，這10種目標PFCs分屬全氟烴基磺酸系列(perfluoroalkyl sulfonate, PFAS)與全氟羧酸系列(perfluoroalkyl carboxylates acid, PFCA)。原物料的分析結果顯示在黃光與顯影相關製程所使用的光阻、光阻去除液、稀釋劑、基板洗淨劑、光阻稀釋液、配向膜…等含有μg/L等級濃度的PFCs。在一電子業廢水處理廠放流水中，可以發現PFOS、PFOA與全氟癸酸(perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA)濃度在0.1-179 μg/L、1.6-172 μg/L與0.1-82.8 μg/L，這也是在承受水體中可以檢測到PFCs主要原因之一承受水體之Keya, Touchien, Xiaoli Rivers中，顯示出確實有PFCs的存在。針對承受水體10種PFCs分析，Keya River出現PFOS與全氟己烷磺酸(perfluorohexyl sulfonate, PFHxS)，濃度分別是5.44與2.24 μg/L，其餘7種PFCs濃度為ng/L濃度等級。Touchien River發現大於ng/L濃度的PFCs物種有7種。Xiaoli River發現大於ng/L濃度的PFCs物種有4種。在Xiaoli River與Touchien River中有淨水廠取水口，此兩河川中潛藏的PFCs進入民生用水淨水廠後，需確保能被妥善處理，以保障安全用水。討廢水廠高級氧化處理單元在PFCs處理效果之實驗，得知通入臭氧與氧氣至處理系統中無明顯的降解效果，同時也不會有溢散情形；分別添加雙氧水與雙氧水/臭氧至處理系統中顯示有降解效果，同時也觀察到，進行處理後不久，PFCs濃度有些許增加，隨之下降，顯示出高含碳數PFCs的前驅物存在於電子廠的放流水中。
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous with their wide production and applications for more than half a century. Because of its persistence and potential health risk, the occurrence of PFCs in our environment is becoming an increased concern. Two compounds that receive most attentions are perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS).n this study, ten target PFCs, belonging to perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates acid (PFAC) groups, were identified with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS).The occurrence of PFCs in the electronic industrial plants was investigated. Low levels (μg/L) of PFOA and PFOS were found from different commonly used chemical materials in the photo developing processes. In the waste effluents of electronic industrial plants, three major constituents PFCs were identified, which were PFOS ( 0.1-179 μg/L), PFOA (1.6-172 μg/L),and perfuorodecanoic acid (PFDA) (0.1-82.8 μg/L). These could be the major sources of the PFCs detected downstream.hree investigated receiving water bodies (Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli Rivers) also demonstrated to have significant amount of PFCs. In Keya River, PFOS and perfluorohexyl sulfonate (PFHxS) occurred at 5.44 and 2.24 μg/L respectively. Other PFCs were found in ng/L level. In Touchien River and Xiaoli River, most of the PFCs were identified in ng/L level, and again PFOS, PFOA and PFDA are the dominate species. Xiaoli River and Touchien River are located on the upstream of drinking water treatment plant; therefore, further treatment of PFCs is needed to ensure our drinking water safety.he removal of PFCs in wastewaters through advanced oxidation process were also investigated. Results demonstrated that ozonation and oxygen alone is ineffective. H2O2 and the H2O2/O3 were more effective in the overall treatment processes. When H2O2 or H2O2/O3 (17.1) ratio were added to the reaction tank, the PFOA, PFOS and PFDA were significantly removed. The slight increase of concentrations of these compounds was observed in the beginning of the treatment process; this may indicate the presence of other precursor compounds (higher carbon PFCs) later being degraded in the electronic plant effluents.
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