Fraternal Solidarity in Motion: A Social Organization of Filipino Seamen in Nanfang-ao
|Keywords:||漁工;船員;海員;社會組織;團結;兄弟義氣;流動能力;fishery workers;seamen;seafarers;social organization;solidarity;fraternity;mobility||Issue Date:||2009||Abstract:||
漁業勞動場域中的菲律賓海員，不只是台灣初級產業部門中的底層勞動力；也是該國海外移工輸出中數十萬海洋勞工（sea-based workers）的一份子。菲律賓海員是全球海運最大的勞動力國別群體，在社會中被視為有專業技術的海外工作者，也是男性扮演家計負擔者（breadwinner）角色的理型之一。儘管如此，菲律賓基層海員卻在勞動市場區隔（segmentation）下受困於放任競爭造成的嚴重失業。在這個脈絡下，到台灣漁船「討海」變成部分海員寄望能夠成功晉升到國際商船「跑船」的階段性流動策略。 Ilonggos Seafarers Organization（簡稱ISO）的菲律賓海員，從南方澳漁業勞動生活中重新搭構社會網絡，挪用了菲律賓兄弟會（fraternity）傳統的社團經驗來推動組織的日常運作；其成員互動也反映了菲律賓社會中男性同儕（barkadas）交誼的習慣與價值。在海員身份的集體認同與信任基礎上，ISO發展出了社會互助的機制，成員們支援彼此的家計負擔，也共享增益彼此流動能力（mobility）的社會資本。 本研究嘗試指出，在台移工自主團體必須進入不同移工群體所鑲嵌的文化傳統與社會位置來理解。另一方面，組織（organizing）做為社會資本的具體實作，其功能及意義也必須置入移工的跨國流動歷程來分析。
The Filipino seamen in fishery are not only labor power at the bottom of the primary sector of Taiwan, but are also recognized to be part of sea-based workers among millions of overseas Filipino contract workers. The Philippines is on top of crew nationality in the merchant seafaring worldwide. Filipino seafarers are regarded as professional overseas workers as well as ideal breadwinners in Philippine society. Nevertheless, Filipino seafarers at the entry level are widely suffered by severe unemployment due to over-competition under labor market segmentation. Filipino seamen of Ilonggo Seafarers Organization (ISO) re-construct their social networks and develop an institution during the labor life in Nanfang-ao fishery. They take use of their experiences to join in fraternity clubs in the Philippines to manage the organization. The interaction between the members also reflects the habits and values of “barkada” male bonding in the Philippine society. On the basis of collective identification of seafarers and mutual trust, ISO initiates their own mutual-aid system to support the livelihoods of each member’s family. Also, they share the social capital to enhance the mobility in the transnational migration field with each other. The thesis argues the independent organizations/associations of migrant workers in Taiwan can only be understood through the multiple cultures, traditions, and social positions they are embedded. Moreover, “self-organizing” as a representative practice of social capital, its function and meaning has to be analyzed under the perspective of transnational migration.
|Appears in Collections:||建築與城鄉研究所|
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