How to Place the Ancestors? The Heterogeneous Ways toward Housing Modernization, Taiwan
|Keywords:||住宅史;傳統性;現代性;意識形態;漢人社會;Housing history;Traditionality;Modernity;Ideology;The Han society||Issue Date:||2016||Abstract:||
本研究嘗試以漢人傳統住宅格局與漢人傳統意識形態「異化」形式的中心──公媽廳，於戰後住宅格局的移轉觀察，重訪臺灣城鄉發展歷程中，住宅傳統性與現代性的張力。藉此局部重寫臺灣住宅的社會文化史，並反映既有臺灣建築史書寫的侷限。為此，研究者彙整官方檔案、書籍報刊，佐以家戶親屬深入訪談和測繪，檢視現代性降臨臺灣之後，公媽廳於日治時期、戰後土地改革、現代農宅運動、工農轉型等歷史進程中的角色。接著，本研究部份接續人類學者P. Steven Sangren，視漢人傳統意識形態為一種扭曲真實生產力來源，卻又具社會生活整合和再生產能力的特殊「異化」觀點，擴展一種以漢人傳統意識形態與住宅格局為物質基礎的辯證式分析架構。據此，本研究提出兩項發現：第一項稱作家屋象徵秩序的「安全閥」，是一種源自傳統和現代格局相互衝突的實作方式。家戶為了縫補斷裂的家屋象徵秩序，必須倚靠現代結構系統，來修正現代住宅格局的錯誤，以含納具有人倫位序和特殊時空觀念的傳統住宅格局生產模式，調解祖先難以名狀的庇蔭與作祟。它牽涉大家庭成員持續擴充，最後因衝突或家戶長逝世而分家裂解的不穩定形式，包括理想大家庭的一體性象徵，以及興建夫妻房、分灶、分香等漢人傳統代際程序。 第二項發現，則鑲嵌在漢人男性必須娶妻生子的先天義務之中，這成為傳統意識形態和現代住宅格局逐漸分離的基礎，是一種量變到質變。家戶掌權者雖依循舊俗興建夫妻房來接納子代家庭，卻因為新的小家庭親屬關係，及其對應的新理想住居形式的出現，而不得不與祖先信仰進行更深刻的磨合，以求兒子們能娶到浸潤於現代性許久，且不在自身祖先掌控範圍內的其他家族女性。在這個過程中，現代住宅格局逐漸獲得正當性，呈現出女性在家庭社會關係的推動力量，以及小家庭脫離宗族之後，女主人地位的提升，和以照顧孩子為主的家屋選擇模式。這趟從傳統邁向現代的過程，除了涉及意識形態、物質生活以及家屋生產的不等速變遷，家戶的社會階級位置、性別差異，其實都會造成局部現代性進程的超前或滯後。這種差異化的不等速「楔形」轉變，和工業化、城市化等快速變遷的外部日常生活形式息息相關，並體現為本研究所探討的住宅形式與室內格局，及涵納其中的家庭社會關係。公媽廳藉由個人真實社會位置及其想像關係的落差，再現為複雜糾結的住宅格局處置型態，體現了傳統意識形態再生產和異化時的痛苦與掙扎。以公媽廳為核心的臺灣漢人住居探究，說明了臺灣人崎嶇往復且分歧多樣的異質姿態，並間接拼湊了以臺灣主體為名的現代性發展過程。
This article focuses on the emobodiement of the Chinese Han people’s ideology, namely the center of their traditional housing configuration, the worshiping hall, or the so-called Gong-ma ting. The author examines the evolvment of the post-war housing in Taiwan to revisit the tension between the traditionality and modernity of the Taiwanese housing. The investigation is conducted through the compilation of journliasm, archives, in-depth interviews and the mapping of the interior housing pattern. The author draws on Steven Sangren’s notion of “alienation,” which regards the traditional Han people’s ideology as the disguise of their relationship of productivity that however is able to bind the society together, to establish a more overarching analytical framework shedding light on the Han people’s ideology and housing configuration. Two main findings emerge here. Firstly, there exists a sort of “safety valve” for the Han people’s household symbolic orders. The safety valve is practices triggered by the conflicts between the traditional and modern housing configuration. Its function is to mend the fissure of the housing symbolic orders, and its fix of the misplaced configuration has unexpextedly relied on the modern architectural structural system. The purpose of the safety valve is to integrate a production mode of housing configuration that integrates both the family ethical relations and their corresponding spatio-temproal concepts. The expansion of family members, the division of family due to the members’ demise or dissent, and the traditional generational procedure based on the couples’ room as well as the rituals of the separateon of kitchen and incense all consititute such process. Secondly, the Han male’s traditional obligation to marry a wife and raise an heir becomes the rationale by which the traditional ideology might gradually divert from the configuration of modern housing. The head of the family who has followed the custom of setting up a couples’ room for the heir now finds it unsuitable for the new family relations their children want, which is mainly core-family and is embedded in the housing of modern style. The Han male thus have to negotiate with the ancestors, during which the modern housing configuration gains its legitimacy and reflects the female’s motivating role for the changing family-socio relation. The female’s raised position is associated with this new style of living as they tend to envisage the ideal housing from a modernized point of view of raising the children. This inherent change from traditionality to modernity is intimately bound with the life style which is swiftly altering at the outside, and this study, which has focused on the housing forms and interior patterns, may embody this family-socio relations. Gong-ma ting is represented as the practical form to deal with the complexities within. By looking in to the gap between the householde social status and the imageined position as shown by the Gong-ma ting, the author has portrayed a modernizing process labeled as the subjectiveity of Taiwan. Keywords: Housing history, Traditionality, Modernity, Ideology, The Han society
|Appears in Collections:||建築與城鄉研究所|
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