The Impact of Old Farmer Pension Program on Economic Behavior of Farm Households in Taiwan
本文利用2011年臺灣地區農家戶口抽樣調查資料探討7,270農戶，其中包含7,270位農業指揮者以及10,918位19至55歲之家庭成員（不包括農業指揮者），並採用Multinomial Logit Model、Recursive Mixed-Nonlinear Model以及Mixture Simultaneous Equation System作為實證模型。實證結果顯示，家中滿十五歲以上人數、農牧戶類型、總耕地面積與指揮者年齡皆對農家指揮者投保農、漁保以及領取老農津貼有顯著影響效果，而教育程度越低也會使農家指揮者投保農、漁保以及領取老農津貼機率增加，且南部地區指揮者投保農、漁保以及領取老農津貼之機率也較其他地區高。此外，實證結果指出老農津貼與家庭農業所得、非農業所得並非脫鉤，指揮者領取老農津貼對農業所得與非農業所得皆為顯著負向效果，因此政府在制訂或調整老農津貼政策時，必須同時考慮到其對農家所得之影響，而家中滿十五歲人數、專業農牧戶、總耕地面積與指揮者年齡皆對家庭農業所得有正向效果。另外，農家指揮者領取老農津貼會顯著影響其他家庭成員之農場外勞動力決策，並減少無農場外工作的機會，尤其以農場外服務業工作之效果最為顯著，且對46~55歲家庭成員所造成的排擠效果最大，故政府在調整老農津貼政策時，須考慮到老農津貼所導致的排擠效果，否則將致使農業人力流失與農家繼承問題越趨嚴重。
The Farmer Health Insurance and the Old Farmer Pension Program are the major part of social welfare system for Taiwanese farmers. The goal of social welfare system is to maintain the health and increase the welfare of farmers and to promote the stability of rural areas. However, the social welfare system generates the deterioration of fiscal expenditure, and the old aged agricultural structure has been a serious problem. Therefore, how to maintain the social and economic wellbeing of the aged farmers has become an important policy issue. Recently a great deal of studies about Taiwanese farmers has devoted to the Farmer Health Insurance and the Old Farmer Pension Program. However, little attention has been paid to thoroughly understanding the current allocation of social insurance of Taiwanese farmers, and the effect of Old Farmer Pension Program on the on- and off-farm incomes and off-farm labor decisions of the young generations of the farm households. Thus, the major objective of this article is to provide an empirical assessment on these particular agricultural policy issue.
Using a unique dataset of 7,270 farm households which contains 7,270 principle farm operators and 10,918 young family members (excluding farm operator) aged 19-55 drawn from the Agricultural Household Survey in Taiwan in 2011, we adopt a Multinomial Logit Model, Recursive Mixed-Nonlinear Model, and Mixture Simultaneous Equation System to thoroughly understand the current allocation of social insurance of Taiwanese farmers, and to investigate the extent to which the receipts of the farm operator of the old pension payments on the off-farm labor supply decisions of the young family members aged 19-55 and on the on- and off-farm incomes. Results show that the number of of household members aged 15 or above, professional farm, total land area, and age of operator have positive effects on the likelihood of insuring the Farmer Health Insurance and receiving the old pension. Moreover, the lower education attainment of operator, the higher the likelihood of insuring the Farmer Health Insurance and receiving the old pension. Furthermore, the receipts of the old pension of the elderly farm operator have a significantly negative impact on the on- and off-farm incomes. This indicate that the relationship between Old Farmer Pension Program and the on- and off-farm incomes is not disconnect. In addition, our findings suggest that the receipts of the old pension of the elderly farm operator have a significant impact on young adults'' off-farm labor decision. The old farmer pension program significantly pushed young farm family member to the off-farm labor market, and the effect is more pronounced in non-farm service sector. Furthermore, among different age groups, this crowding-out effect is more significant for the family members aged between 46 and 55. This result provides a deep insight of the existing literature regarding the crowding out effect of public pension on other family members. In terms of policy perspective, government should design other programs to help young farm generation on the farm to balance the negative impacts of the Old Farmer Pension Program on farm succession. In conclusion, the government concerned should take the crowding-out effect into account when they adjusted the Old Farmer Pension Program, otherwise the loss of labor resource in agricultural sector and farm succession issues would become a serious problem.
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