A Sociocultural Approach to The News-making of a Major Natural Disaster: Exploring on TV News Works of Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan
|關鍵字:||災難傳播;災難新聞學;風險與不確定性;新聞產製;社會文化分析;disaster communication;disaster journalism;risk and uncertainty;news making;Sociocultural Approach||公開日期:||2015||摘要:|| 本論文之研究目的是詮釋和探索臺灣重大自然災難新聞產製的社會文化意涵，藉此釐清新聞工作者在充滿不確定性的情境脈絡下如何經驗專業。在研究方法上，本研究主要透過深度訪談29位電視新聞工作者的勞動經驗和職業詮釋，輔以次級資料來進行分析。 本論文有兩個主要的研究問題，分別在四、五兩章進行分析和回應。首先在第四章的分析討論中，透過分析社會結構、電視新聞的公共論述以及電視新聞工作者的實作經驗，本論文探索分析重大自然災難的電視新聞工作是如何鑲嵌在商業結構所主導的社會文化脈絡中。如此也有利於本研究歸納兩點研究發現：第一個發現是，在例行的新聞產製過程之中，由結構力量所引導、轉變的新聞產製規範被新聞工作者遵循或反抗，以至於讓例行的新聞產製文化成為依循結構邏輯的文化實作；第二個發現是，臺灣新聞產製文化的發展過程，主要受到市場經濟力主導，這也導致了臺灣的新聞產製文化，普遍缺乏客觀專業主義的文化實作。 針對第二個研究問題，本論文在第五章中進一步分析電視新聞工作者的職業觀、產製情境以及處於災難風險情境下所形成的反思經驗、具體作為。研究發現，災難新聞產製過程中的各類新聞工作者，普遍經歷高度不確定性以及惡劣的勞動條件。災難情境迫使各類新聞工作者必須要有更多的臨機反應，以彈性的方式來建構出各種因應現實狀況的文化腳本。值得注意的是，依據職業認同方向（社會責任或商業利益），以及反思行動方向（追求公信或者為自利）的影響，雖然可能形成八種災難新聞產製的文化腳本，然而在八八風災的個案之中，「追求客觀平衡報導」和「服膺災難管理」這兩種文化腳本是未被實踐的。 在最後一章的總結與討論中，本論文根據上述得以指出，在非災難時刻，新聞產製常是透過常規中介結構力量，讓新聞工作者能夠在例行的新聞產製分工之中，在一種共識和共享的象徵系統下實踐他們的新聞工作，最終展現出一種回應特定社會結構所形成的職業社群期待，形成「務實」的新聞職業表現。弔詭的是，這種「務實」的表現卻偏離了社會對於新聞專業的想像和期待。 反應在八八風災這個重大災難的新聞產製文化上，正因為缺乏「追求客觀平衡報導」和「服膺災難管理」這兩項文化腳本，使得災難新聞產製的文化實踐，無法滿足社會和災難管理單位對於災難新聞的期待與需要，因而造成了社會各界對於臺灣災難新聞的不滿與批判。這樣的發現也適度解釋了，何以近年來臺灣電視新聞業在重大事件中會不斷遭受社會批判，同時逐漸喪失其專業地位。 最後，本論文以災難新聞工作者的勞動經驗為本，反思臺灣重大災難新聞產製文化所內涵的問題與矛盾，並提出更貼近風險社會觀的新聞產製文化的轉型之建議。
This thesis aims to explore the social and cultural implicaitons of news production in face of major natural disasters in Taiwan. Through analyzing the professional views and role identities shared by news workers and how they produce news and commit to journalism under such cultural background, this research attempts to clarify the implications and practical effects of the culture of disaster news production. In terms of methodology, depth interviews with 29 TV news workers are conducted to learn their work experience and occupation interpretation, and corresponding data analysis is made to provide statistical support. There are two main research questions in this study, which are analyzed and answered in Chapter Four and Chapter Five respectively. In Chapter Four, based on the analysis of the public understanding of social structure and television news as well as the practical experience of TV news workers, the research diachronically reviews how television journalism is connected to the specific social-cultural contexts. Correspondingly, two research findings are concluded here. First, during the conventional course of news production, relevant norms guided and transformed by the power of structure are either accepted or resisted by journalists. As a result, the conventional news production culture turns into some cultural practice following the structural logic. Second, the development of Taiwan’s news production culture is mainly dominated by economic powers, which leads to a general lack of objective professionalism in the cultural practice of Taiwan’s news production. To answer the second research question, this research discusses in Chapter Five the professional views of television journalists, relevant production situations, as well as their reflection experience and concrete actions in face of disaster risks. It is found that journalists in the process of disaster news production generally face high degree of uncertainty as well as poor working conditions. Disaster situations require that journalists must have the abilities to adapt themselves to the changing circumstances and flexibly construct various cultural scripts according to the practical conditions. It is important to note that there are eight types of cultural scripts in disaster news production according to professional identities (social responsibility or business interests) and reflection actions (pursuit of public trust or self-interest). However, in the case of Typhoon Morakot, cultural scripts of “pursuing objective and balanced reporting” and “complying to disaster management” are not practiced. It is concluded in the last chapter that a research from the cultural perspective is helpful for researchers to explore how news workers begin learning from practicing after they enter the TV news field and learn to complete their duties in work field. During the non-disaster period, news production culture enables news workers to practice their jobs under routine division of news production in the symbol system of consensus and sharing, so as to eventually represent a “practical” journalism performance that responds to occupational community expectations. Strangely, however, such “practical” performance is deviated from the imagination and expectation of the society for journalism. With regard to cultural scripts of news production in the serious case of 8.8 windstorm disaster, due to the lack of cultural scripts “pursuing objective and balanced report” and “complying to disaster management”, the cultural practice of disaster news production failed to satisfy the expectation and demand of disaster news from the society and disaster management units, thus causing discontent and criticism from all walks of life on Taiwan’s disaster news. Such a finding also partly explains why Taiwan’s television journalism has been constantly subject to social criticism in major events and gradually losing its professional status in recent years. Finally, the dissertation discusses the problems and conflicts hidden in the culture of Taiwan’s major disaster news production in accordance with disaster journalists’ work experience, and offers suggestions for the transformation of news production system that toward risk society.
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