Making of rose liqueur
玫瑰花屬於薔薇科 (Rosaceae) 、薔薇屬 (Rosa Spp.) ，花色變化豐富，富具香氣，堪稱為「花之后」，國內玫瑰花向來以切花型式內銷為主，利潤不高，加工品很少，以致產量過剩時貨棄於地，不適切花之格外品也難以利用，殊為可惜。本實驗將探討 (1) 玫瑰花花青素之定性分析及玫瑰花浸漬酒香氣成分之鑑定， (2) 玫瑰花經破碎處理或未破碎處理及依不同比例之固液比和不同濃度之糖蜜酒精，於浸漬過程中各項物化特性之分析，以確立玫瑰花浸漬酒之基本製程，然後再視後續試驗所得結果改良之，並藉由感官品評分析以確立玫瑰花浸漬酒之最適製程， (3) 探討添加多酚類化合物，對酒液於儲藏期間品質之影響。
結果顯示：佳娜紅 (Grand Gala) 花瓣花青素含量約為 5-10 mg/g fwt，而主要的花青素為Cyanidin-3,5-diglucosides。而雙喜 (Double Delight) 浸漬酒其香氣成分主要有benzeneethanol、3-methyl-1-butanol等成分。佳娜紅玫瑰花瓣清洗後先經或未經破碎處理，秤重浸入已調配好之酒精溶液 (30 %) ，固液比例依花重：酒精為1.5：10 (w/v) ，於25 ℃下浸漬，發現經過破碎及未破碎處理之花青素總量於第一天及第二天之後幾乎完全萃出，且經過破碎者其褐變較嚴重，因此往後實驗改由未破碎進行試驗。
依不同固液比 (1:10、1.5:10及2:10；w/v) 及不同濃度之糖蜜酒精 (20 %及40 %) ，於25 ℃下浸漬，其總花青素於浸漬的第二日亦均萃至最大量，且固液比愈大者其總花青素含量愈多，然不同酒精濃度萃取效果並無顯著性差異。
玫瑰花浸漬酒經膜過濾後，勾兌成酒精度為16 %、糖度為20 °Brix及酸度為1 %，進行感官品評。在外觀上，以試驗酒液較佳；香氣則以市售者為佳；但整體接受度並無顯著差異。進行製作另一以香水玫瑰品種之玫瑰花浸漬酒，而將所得之基酒與佳娜紅基酒調和，結果發現不論外觀或整體接受度均較市售者為佳，且混合比例為1:9 (v/v) 時具有較大的抗氧化能力。
貯藏三個月發現， (1) 以果糖勾兌者在儲藏試驗中，其紅色度下降速度較以蔗糖處理者快，建議仍以非還原糖進行勾兌對日後酒液保存較易，且酒液最好能予以避光包裝，以避免顏色品質的下降； (2) 添加不同之多酚類化合物時發現，添加caffeic acid、ferulic acid和茶多酚對酒液色澤、花青素含量、以及抗氧化能力之降低速度與控制組並無顯著性的差異。 (3) 酒液儲藏三個月後，其香氣高級醇均有減少之趨勢；但有hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester酯類出現。
Roses belong to Rosa genera of the Rosaceae family. They are colorful, beautiful and fragrant. We usually call them queens in flowers. The main use of domestic rose is cut flower. However, due to the perishable and fragile characteristics of rose flowers, we need to develop a new product to maximize the profits. The purposes of this thesis are (1) qualitative and quantitative analysis of the anthocyanins of Grand Gala rose grown in Taiwan, also to identify flavor impact compounds of rose liqueur and the changes during soaking, (2) to understand the composition of rose liqueur and color change during soaking and storage, and to establish the process for rose liqueur manufacture, and (3) to investigate the effect of different phenolic compounds on quality during product storage.
The result shows that anthocyanin content of Grand Gala is 5-10 mg/g fwt, and the major species of anthocyanin is Cyanidin-3,5-diglucosides. The major volatile compounds of Double Delight liqueur are alcohols including benzeneethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, etc.
Rose petals of Grand Gala cultivar were washed, chopped or not, and then soaked at 1.5:10 w/v ratio in 30 % formulated ethanol solution at 25 oC. Nearly all anthocyanins in both of the samples with and without chopping treatment were extracted in one and two days, respectively. The sample with chopping treatment browned more seriously. Therefore, chopping was not applied in the subsequent experiments.
In soaking of the petals at various solid-liquid ratio (1:10, 1.5:10, and 2:10) in ethanol solutions at various concentrations at 25 oC, extraction of anthocyanins were nearly completed within 2 days in all the samples. A higher solid-liquid ratio favors the effectiveness of anthocyanin extraction, and the effect of ethanol concentration on anthocyanin extraction is not significant difference.
The rose liqueur was membrane filtrated and formulated to 16 % ethanol, 20 oBrix, and 1 % acidity for sensory evaluation. The appearance of our samples was superior to commercial products, whereas the aroma was inferior. Rose liqueur of Double Delight cultivar was prepared to blend with that of Grand Gala cultivar. The blended samples were found to be superior to commercial products in appearance and overall acceptance. At blending ratio 1:9 (Double Delight liqueur/Grand Gala liqueur, v:v), the sample has a higher antioxidative activity as well.
After 3 months storage, our result showed that (1) color a value of rose liqueur with sucrose treatment had a slower decreased than with fructose treatment, (2) the sample added with caffeic acid or ferulic acid or tea polyphenol showed no significant difference in the color, anthocyanins content, and antioxidant capacity during storage as compared to control, and (3) the total amount of volatile compounds of rose liqueur decreased gradually, however there was one ester volatile formed, hexadecanoic ethyl ester, during storage.
|Appears in Collections:||食品科技研究所|
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.